# Values Flashcards Preview

## Ambers Echo 2 > Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Values Deck (166)
1
Q

PW can’t measure high velociraptor but what can it measure up to?

A

> 2.0-2.5 m\s

2
Q

PW will aliase if …?

A

Exceed the nyquist limit,

1/2 PRF

3
Q

MR flow is about how fast

A

5-7 m/s

4
Q

A 20 degree offset from flow direction = —% underestimation of blood flow velocity

A

6%

5
Q

When arrhythmias are present how many beats should be measured to be able to average the velocities

A

3-5 beats

6
Q

If the velocities exceed —- then the expanded Bernoulli equation should be used

A

_> 1.2 m/s

7
Q

If a stenosis is longer then —- then it starts to affect the estimation of pressure gradients

A

> 10 mm

8
Q

The baseline should be — from top or bottom

A

3/4 ways

9
Q

The useful part of the spectral should occupy how much of the total scale

A

1/2-3/4

10
Q

In a stenosis if the area reduces by half, what happens to the speed

A

Doubles

11
Q

Aorta systolic pressure

A

120 mmHg

12
Q

Aorta diastolic pressure

A

70 mmHg

13
Q

Mean aorta pressure

A

85 mmHg

14
Q

Mean Right atrial pressure

A

4 mmHg

15
Q

Systolic right ventricle pressure

A

25 mmHg

16
Q

Diastolic right ventricle pressure

A

4 mmHg

17
Q

Systolic left ventricle pressure

A

120 mmHg

18
Q

Diastolic left ventricle pressure

A

10 mmHg

19
Q

Mean Left atrium pressure

A

10 mmHg

20
Q

PA systolic pressure

A

25 mmHg

21
Q

PA diastolic pressure

A

10 mmHg

22
Q

PA mean pressure

A

16 mmHg

23
Q

Normal Parasternal EF

A

_> 55%

24
Q

Normal FS

A

> 25%

25
Q

Male simpsons EF

A

52-72

26
Q

Females simpsons EF

A

54-74

27
Q

When using A4C and A2C for simpsons there should be no more than how much of a difference in lengths

A

10%

1cm

28
Q

Normal female linear method FS

A

27-45%

29
Q

Normal female parasternal EF

A

_> 55%

30
Q

Normal female LV size

A

_< 53mm

31
Q

Severe female linear method FS

A

_<16%

32
Q

Severe female parasternal EF %

A

_< 30%

33
Q

Severe female LV size

A

_> 62mm

34
Q

Severe female simpsons EF

A

<30 %

35
Q

Normal male linear method FS

A

25-43 %

36
Q

Normal male parasternal EF

A

_> 55%

37
Q

Normal male LV size

A

_< 59mm

38
Q

Severe male linear method FS

A

_<14%

39
Q

Severe male parasternal EF

A

_<30%

40
Q

Severe male LV size

A

_> 69mm

41
Q

Severe male simpsons EF

A

<30%

42
Q

For Dp/Dt what velociraptor do you measure at?

A

1 m/s and 3m/s

43
Q

Dp/Dt measures how much time it takes for the LV pressure to raise by

A

32 mmHg

44
Q

During Dp/Dt the sweep speed is increased to

A

100-200 cm/s

45
Q

Normal Dp/Dt values

A

> 1200 mmHg/s

46
Q

Severe LV systolic dysfunction Dp/Dt values

A

<800 mmHg/s

47
Q

Normal time for LV to generate 33mmHg

A

<27ms

48
Q

Severe LV systolic dysfunction time for LV to generate 32mmHg

A

> 40ms

49
Q

MPI conventional Doppler method (preferred method) for normal LV

A

<0.44

50
Q

Normal LV tissue Doppler (LIMP)

A

<0.6

51
Q

Tissue Doppler RV normal (RIMP)

A

<0.55

52
Q

RV basal cavity diameter

A

_<41mm

53
Q

RV mid cavity diameter

A

_<35mm

54
Q

RV length (long axis)

A

_<86mm

55
Q

RVOT diameter (proximal)

A

_< 33 mm

56
Q

RVOT diameter (distal)

A

_< 27 mm

57
Q

RV systolic function - Doppler tissue imaging S prime

A

_> 9.5 cm/s

58
Q

RV systolic function - fractional area change

A

_>35%

59
Q

RV systolic function - MPI conventional method Doppler

A

_<0.43

60
Q

RV systolic function TASPE

A

_> 17 mm

61
Q

M-mode LA dimension normal women

A

27-38mm

62
Q

M-mode LA dimension normal men

A

30-40mm

63
Q

2D linear LA dimension normal women

A

27-38mm

64
Q

2D linear LA dimension normal men

A

30-40mm

65
Q

When measuring the LA in both A4C and A2C the lengths should not differ by more then

A

5mm

66
Q

LA volume index normal

A

16-34 ml/m sq

67
Q

LA volume index mild

A

35-41 ml/m sq

68
Q

LA volume index moderate

A

42-48 ml/m sq

69
Q

LA volume index severe

A

_> 48 ml/m sq

70
Q

2D linear LA dimension severe male

A

> 52mm

71
Q

2D linear LA dimension severe women

A

> 47mm

72
Q

RA minor axis normal

A

<44mm

73
Q

RA minor axis abnormal

A

> 44mm

74
Q

RA major normal

A

<53mm

75
Q

RA major abnormal

A

> 53mm

76
Q

RA area normal

A

<18cm sq

77
Q

RA area abnormal

A

> 18 cm sq

78
Q

RA volume index normal female

A

_< 27 ml/m sq

79
Q

RA volume index normal male

A

_< 32 ml/m sq

80
Q

RA volume index abnormal female

A

> 27 ml/m sq

81
Q

RA volume index abnormal male

A

> 32 ml/m sq

82
Q

Systolic/forward failure/ HFrEF has a EF of

A

<40%

83
Q

Diastolic/backward failure/ HFnEF has a EF of

A

> 55%

84
Q

Systolic/forward failure/ HFrEF makes up what percent of all CHF

A

50-60%

85
Q

Diastolic/backward failure/ HFnEF makes up what percent of all CHF

A

40-50% with increasing prevalence

86
Q

Normal LAP

A

6-12 mmHg

87
Q

A LAP of what equals pulmonary hypertension

A

> 18 mmHg

88
Q

Normal IVC

A

_<21 mm

89
Q

Abnormal IVC

A

> 21 mm

90
Q

Normal amount for IVC to collapse

A

> 50%

91
Q

RAP with ALL normal values

A

3 mmHg

92
Q

RAP with no normal values

A

15 mmHg

93
Q

RAP with one of two criteria being normal

A

8mmHg

94
Q

Normal length for IVRT

A

50-100ms

<94 ms

95
Q

Early filling contributes —— of the total diastolic filling

A

70-80%

96
Q

Normal length of time for early filling to last

A

150-200 ms

Up to 220 ms

97
Q

Late filling (atrial contraction) contributes —— amount to total diastolic filling

A

20-30%

98
Q

Abnormal LA volume index

A

> 34 ml/meter squared

99
Q

Normal PLAX female LA size

A

<38

100
Q

Normal PLAX male LA size

A

<40

101
Q

Normal LA mean pressure

A

3-12 mmHg

102
Q

Normal E/A ratio

A

0.8-2

103
Q

Normal deceleration time

A

160-200ms

Up to 220ms

104
Q

Normal E (early filling) wave

A

0.6-1.3 m/s

105
Q

Normal E prime for medial (septal) wall

A

> 7 cm/s

106
Q

Normal e prime for lateral wall

A

> 10 cm/s

107
Q

Normal TR jet

A

<2.8 m/s

108
Q

Normal E/e ratio

A

<14

109
Q

Pulmonary vein S to D ratio

A

S < D

110
Q

Normal PVa-MVA

A

<20 ms

111
Q

Severe DD PVa-MVA

A

_> 30 ms

112
Q

Normal LA volume index

A

16-34 ml/meter squared up

113
Q

Severe DD (LAE) LA volume index

A

> 48 ml/meter squared

114
Q

Normal mitral E/A ratio

A

_>0.8

115
Q

Abnormal mitral E/A ratio

A

> 2

116
Q

Normal E/e ratio

A

<10

117
Q

Severe abnormal E/e ratio

A

> 14

118
Q

Mild Jet height /LVOT diameter

A

<25%

119
Q

Severe jet height/LVOT diameter ratio

A

_>65%

120
Q

Mild jet area/LVOT area ratio

A

<5%

121
Q

Moderate jet area/LVOT area ratio

A

5-59%

122
Q

Severe jet area/LVOT area ratio

A

> 60%

123
Q

AI mild vena contracta

A

<3mm

124
Q

AI severe vena contracta

A

_> 6 mm

125
Q

Mild AR pressure half time

A

> 500 ms

126
Q

Severe MR pressure half time

A

<200 ms

127
Q

25% of all adults have aortic sclerosis what percentage of this individuals will develop aortic stenosis

A

10-15%

128
Q

CW Doppler velocity through AV sclerosis

A

<2.5 m/s

129
Q

CW Doppler velocity through AV stenosis

A

> 2.5 m/s

130
Q

LVOT diameter normal (most people)

A

18-22 mm

131
Q

AV sclerosis jet velocity

A

_<2.5 m/s

132
Q

Mild AV stenosis jet velocity

A

2.5-2.9 m/s

133
Q

Severe AV stenosis jet velocity

A

> 4 m/s

134
Q

Mild AV stenosis mean gradient

A

<20 mmHg

135
Q

Severe AV stenosis mean gradient

A

> 40 mmHg

136
Q

Mild AV stenosis AVA

A

> 1.5 cm squared

137
Q

Severe AV stenosis AVA

A

<1 cm squared

138
Q

Mild AV stenosis indexed AVA to BSA

A

> 0.85 cm squared / meter squared

139
Q

Severe AV stenosis indexed AVA to BSA

A

<0.6 cm squared / meter squared

140
Q

Mild AV stenosis velocity ratio

A

> 0.5

141
Q

Severe AV stenosis velocity ratio

A

<0.25

142
Q

There are over how many chords in the MV

A

120

143
Q

The posteromedial pap muscle has how many heads and bodies and how many arteries feeding it

A

2 bodies
1 artery

144
Q

The anterolateral pap muscle has how many heads and bodies and how many arteries feeding it

A

1 body
2 arteries

145
Q

What is normal MV leaflet thickness

A

1-2 mm

146
Q

Mild MV by mean gradient

A

<5 mmHg

147
Q

Severe MV by mean gradient

A

> 10 mmHg

148
Q

A misalignment of 20 degrees equals a —— reduction of velocity

A

6-7%

149
Q

Normal MVA

A

4-6 Cm squared

150
Q

Mild MS MVA

A

> 1.5 cm squared

151
Q

Severe MS MVA

A

<1.0 cm squared

152
Q

Mild AR jet height / LVOT diameter ratio

A

<25%

153
Q

Severe AR jet height / LavOT diameter ratio

A

_> 65%

154
Q

Mild AR jet area / LVOT area ratio

A

<5%

155
Q

Moderate AR jet area / LVOT area ratio

A

5-59%

156
Q

Severe AR jet area / LVOT area ratio

A

> 60%

157
Q

AR vena contracta zone mild

A

<3 mm

158
Q

AR vena contracta zone severe

A

_> 6mm

159
Q

AR mild pressure half time

A

> 500 ms

160
Q

AR severe pressure half time

A

<200 ms

161
Q

AR regurgitate volume mild

A

<30ml

162
Q

AR regurgitate volume severe

A

> 60 ml

163
Q

AR regurgitate fraction mild

A

<30%

164
Q

AR regurgitate fraction severe

A

> 50%

165
Q

AR effective regurgitate office area mild (PISA)

A

<0.10 cm squared

166
Q

AR effective regurgitate orfice area severe

A

_> 0.30 cm squared