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Flashcards in Valve Diseases Deck (61):
1

Cause of Mitral Stenosis?

Rheumatic Fever

2

Mid/late diastolic murmur

m/T stenosis

3

Corrigan's

increase in carotid pulse, sign of aortic regurgitation

4

Tricuspid regurgitation - murmur

holosystolic that increases with inspiration

5

which murmur radiates to the carotid

aortic stenosis

6

Symptoms of tricuspid regurgitation

edema, ascites, hepatic congestion, JVD

7

Holosystolic murmur

Mitral and Tricuspid regurgitation

8

Tricuspid regurgitation

backflow in systole to lead to RA dilation

9

Tricuspid stenosis murmur

mid/late diastolic that increases with inspiration.

10

Symptoms of mitral regurgitation

RHF, pulmonary hypertension, A fibrillation

11

Pulmonary regurgitation

pulmonary backflow in diastole to cause RV dilation. Mild to moderate is common in ECHO, and requires not testing

12

bicsupid aortic valve pathology

increase in MMPs, and myofibrillar elements to lead to cell death.

13

Aortic regurgitation

Backflow into LV in diastole to lead to LV dilation.

14

Associating problems with bicuspid aoritc valve

AS, AI, Aortic dilation, endocarditis, coarctation

15

Tricuspid Stenosis Etiology

Rhematic Disease

16

Mitral stenosis murmur

mid/late diastolic

17

Aortic regurgitation - symptoms

Water-hammer, deMussets, Quinckes, Meullers, Corrigans, Dyspnea, Pulmonary Edema

18

Tricuspid regurgitation etiology

80% functional - annular dilation, leaflet tether.

19

Increased severity of mitral stenosis

earlier snap and longer murmur duration

20

Aortic Stenosis Etiology

Bicuspid AV, calcific, Rheumatic (with mitral)

21

Valsalva does what?

decrease LV size to increase mitral valve prolapse murmur and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmur and decrease all else.

22

Aortic Regurgitation murmur

early diastolic murmur with bounding carotid and peripheral pulses

23

Pressures in aortic regurgitation

Increase in pulse pressure Increase in LA pressure Increase in LV pressure Aortic: increase in systolic and decrease is diastolic pressure (due to leak)

24

Early diastolic Murmurs

aortic/p regurg

25

Pulmonary Stenosis - etiology

congential heart disease

26

Aortic stenosis - murmur

systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur

27

Mitral Valve prolapse murmur

late systolic that increases with valsava

28

Tricuspid Stenosis

decreased diastolic filling to lead to dilation of RA.

29

DeMusset's

sign of aortic regurgitation, head bob

30

Mitral Valve Prolapse etiology

sporadic, hereditary, CT diseases

31

Late systolic murmur

mitral Valve prolapse

32

Tx of aortic stenosis

surgery if symptomatic or EF

33

squatting does what?

increases LV size. decreases mitral valve prolapse murmur

34

Aortic Stenosis Pressures

Decrease pulse pressure in systole LA pressure increase LV pressure increase in both diastolic and systolic Aortic: decrease

35

Increasing severity of pulmonary stenosis murmur

split S2 with S4. Longer, later peak

36

Symptoms of pulmonary regurgitation

JVD, peripheral edema, A and V arrhythmias

37

Pulmonary regurgitation murmur

early diastolic murmur that increases with inspiration

38

Quincke's

visible pulse in fingertips; sign of aortic regurgitation

39

Mueller's sign

pulse in uvual , sign of aortic regurgitation

40

Pressures in Mitral Stenosis

increase in left atrial pressure and increase pressure gradient between atria and ventricle. Sever is 10-30 mmHg LA pressure increases LV pressure: both systolic and diastolic decrease aortic: decrease

41

Treatment of Tricuspid regurgitation

Diuretics, surgery done when doing left heart surgery

42

Mitral regurgitation - murmur

holosystolic

43

Systolic Ejection Murmurs

Aortic and pulmonic stensosi

44

Mitral Regurgitation etiology

Primary: prolapse, endocarditis Function - dilation or dysfunction of left ventricle

45

Mitral Stenosis

decreased diastolic filling and dilation of Left Atrium

46

Aortic Stenosis basics

decreased systolic flow (emptying), to cause hypertrophy of LV

47

Pulmonary Regurgitation - etiology

Iatrogenic (surgery), or secondarily cause by pulmonary A. dilation or pulmonary hypertension

48

Pulmonary stenosis

decreased systolid flow (emptying) leading to RV hypertrophy

49

Pressures in Mitral regurgitation

Increased LA pressure LV Pressure: increased diastolic, decreased systolic Aortic: decreased

50

what type causes increase in pulse pressure?

aortic regurgitation

51

Tricuspid regurgitation - pressures

Increase RA pressure, decrease RV and pulmonic pressures

52

what are the systolic murmurs

A/P stenosis, M/T regurgitation, mitral v. prolapse

53

Symptoms of Mitral Valve prolapse

A fib, LV dilation, CHF

54

Mitral Valve prolapse pathophysiolgy

thickening of mitral valve so it opens, but doesn't close and remains in left atrium. Asosicated iwth mitral regurgitation.

55

Mitral regurgitation

Backflow in systole to cause LA dilation

56

Mitral Stenosis symptoms

pulmonary hypertension, right sided HF, A fib, stroke/thrombosis

57

pulmonic stenosis - murmur

systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur that increases with inspiration

58

Aortic Stenosis symptoms

Dyspnea on exertion, syncope, angina, CHF

59

bicuspid aortic valve murmur

systolic ejection murmur that is same on inspiration and expiration

60

Aortic Regurg etiology

Bicuspid valve, aortic dilation, Rheumatic

61

Mitral regurgitation treatment

Meds: diuretic, drugs to decrease afterload, mitraclip. Surgery if symptomatic, LV dilation/dysfunction, a fib, pulmonary hypertension. More likely to do repair over replacement of valve.