Valvular Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Valvular Disease Deck (36)
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1

When do symptoms typically start to occur in patients with aortic stenosis? Before this point, what is the only sign?

When the valve area is < 1.5cm2 / Murmur

2

Name 3 potential causes of aortic stenosis?

Age, bicuspid aortic valve, rheumatic fever

3

When does degenerative aortic stenosis typically present?

The 6th or 7th decade of life

4

When should surgery be considered for aortic stenosis?

When symptoms start to occur

5

Describe the progression of symptoms typically seen in aortic stenosis?

Dyspnoea + fatigue, anginal symptoms, presyncope or syncope, heart failure symptoms

6

Describe the typical murmur heard in aortic stenosis? Where is this murmur loudest? Where does it radiate to?

Ejection systolic murmur, loudest at the aortic area (on expiration), radiating to the carotids

7

What is the most common major valve problem? What is it closely followed by?

Aortic stenosis, followed by mitral regurgitation

8

What are the long-term consequences of untreated, left-sided valvular disease?

Left ventricular hypertrophy and/or pulmonary hypertension

9

What is the most common cause of valvular dysfunction?

Age related generation

10

Symptoms which occur when, are characteristic of valvular heart disease?

On exertion

11

What is the only definitive treatment for a poorly functioning heart?

Surgical replacement or repair

12

Describe the pulse associated with aortic stenosis?

Slow rising, low volume pulse

13

A soft S2 is associated with what valvular abnormality?

Aortic stenosis

14

A narrow pulse pressure is associated with what valvular abnormality?

Aortic stenosis

15

What investigation is the gold standard for confirming and grading aortic stenosis?

Transthoracic ECHO

16

In addition to an ECHO, what other investigations may be performed in someone with aortic stenosis?

ECG and coronary angiography

17

What is the definitive treatment option for aortic stenosis?

Valve replacement

18

What type of prosthetic valve is typically used in younger patients?

Mechanical valve

19

What type of prosthetic valve is typically used in older patients?

Biological valve

20

What anticoagulation is required with mechanical aortic valves?

Lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin

21

What anticoagulation is required with biological aortic valves?

Warfarin for 3 months after surgery

22

Which type of prosthetic valve is more likely to give off a 'click' and is therefore easier to identify?

Mechanical

23

What is the most common cause of aortic stenosis in patients aged < 65?

Bicuspid aortic valve

24

What procedure is a less invasive approach to aortic stenosis treatment, that is currently targeted to high-risk or inoperable patients?

Trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

25

A wide pulse pressure is seen in which valvular abnormality? What clinical features may this cause?

Aortic regurgitation / head bobbing and nail pulsing

26

A collapsing pulse is associated with which valvular abnormality?

Aortic regurgitation

27

A bounding pulse is associated with which valvular abnormality?

Aortic regurgitation

28

Describe the typical murmur that occurs with aortic regurgitation? When is this best heard?

Early diastolic murmur, loudest at the left sternal edge with the patient leaning forwards on expiration

29

What is the investigation of choice for diagnosing aortic regurgitation?

Transthoracic ECHO

30

What is the only definitive treatment for aortic regurgitation?

Valve replacement