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1

Which transducer orientation is most accurate for visualizing plaque in the carotid arteries?

*transverse

*longitudinal

*oblique

*transverse

2

n evaluating the right ICA in transverse, which side of the screen should it appear (assuming the index marker is correctly positioned)?

*right

*left

*left

3

What is true about the External Carotid Artery?

*Larger than the Internal Carotid Artery

*Has cervical branches

*Positioned lateral to the Internal Carotid Artery

*Runs between the vertebrae

*Has cervical branches

4

All of the following are vertebrobasilar symptoms except:

*syncope

*vertigo

*memory loss

*hemiplegia

*hemiplegia

5

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) differs from a stroke (CVA) because:

*a TIA leaves permanent neurologic deficits

*a TIA lasts for longer than 24 hours and completely resolves

*a TIA lasts for less then 24 hours and completely resolves

a TIA involves visual disturbances, and a CVA does not

*a TIA lasts for less then 24 hours and completely resolves

6

You perform percussion maneuvers on the superficial temporal artery and see oscillations on the spectral display. The artery being insonated is most likely:

*ICA

*ECA

*Vertebral Artery

*Thyrocervical trunk 

*ECA

7

at is the first branch of the external carotid artery?

*Lingual artery

*Superior thyroid artery

*facial artery

*occipital artery

*Superior thyroid artery

8

Amaurosis fugax related to an internal carotid lesion will cause:

*permanent blindness of the contralateral eye

*temporary blindness or shading of the ipsilateral eye

*permanent blindness of the ipsilateral eye

*temporary blindness or shading of the contralateral eye

*temporary blindness or shading of both eyes

*temporary blindness or shading of the ipsilateral eye

9

When attempting to obtain good color filling of a low-velocity vessel like the vertebral artery, what color controls may be adjusted in order to improve the color?

*decrease the scale; decrease the gain

*increase the scale; decrease the gain

*increase the scale; increase the gain

*decrease the scale; increase the gain

*decrease the scale; increase the gain

10

According to the Doppler equation, the most accurate Doppler velocities are obtained at an angle of:

*0 degrees

*45 degrees

*60 degrees

*90 degrees 

*0 degrees

11

In the case of Vascular doppler, we use an angle of _____ in order to correspond to the diagnostic criteria.

*0 degrees

*45 degrees

*60 degrees

*90 degrees

*60 degrees

12

Of the following values, which is the best width for a sample volume in obtaining doppler signals within the carotid arteries?

*1.5 mm

*2.0 mm

*2.5 mm

*3.0 mm

*1.5 mm

13

If the doppler gain setting is too high, what might that waveform appear to display?

*underestimation of velocity

*overestimation of velocity

*spectral broadening

*aliasing

*spectral broadening

14

Which of the following is not a typical doppler sample location in the carotid ultrasound?

*proximal CCA

*proximal ICA

*distal ICA

*distal ECA

*distal ECA

15

List the four steps involved when 'mapping' a stenosis in the carotid arteries.

1) Visualize the plaque
2) Work the sample volume through the stenosis
3) recored and measure the highest velocity
4) sample and record distal to a stenosis to detect turbulence

16

What are the two steps needed to improve color flow through a nearly occluded vessel?

1) use a low color scale setting
2) increase the color gain

17

According to the Consensus Panel- 2003, what is the ICA PSV for a stenosis of <50%?

*<125 cm/s

*>125 cm/s

*125-230 cm/s

*>230 cm/s

*<125 cm/s

18

According to the Consensus Panel- 2003, an ICA PSV of 275 cm/s correlates with which percentage of stenosis?

*<50% stenosis

*50-69% stenosis

*≥70% stenosis

*Occlusion

*≥70% stenosis

19

According to the Consensus Panel- 2003, an ICA EDV of 60 cm/s correlates to which degree of stenosis?

*<50% stenosis

*50-69% stenosis

*>70% stenosis

*occlusion

*50-69% stenosis

20

According to the Consensus Panel- 2003, an ICA PSV of 115 cm/s correlates to which percentage of stenosis?

*<50% stenosis

*50-69% stenosis

*≥70% stenosis

*occlusion

<50% stenosis

21

In order to image the vertebral arteries, you would place your transducer in the longitudinal orientation and view the CCA. From there, you would angle the probe more ___________ in order to visualize the vertebral artery.

*anteriorly

* laterally

*medially

*posteriorly

*posteriorly

22

A ____ mmHg gradient between left and right brachial pressures suggests subclavian stenosis

*5

*10

*15

*20

*20

23

In the case of a left subclavian steal, the technologist may observe retrograde flow in the:

*contralateral vertebral artery

*ipsilateral vertebral artery

*contralateral common carotid artery

*ipsilateral subclavian artery

*ipsilateral vertebral artery

24

What is the longest vein in the body?

*inferior vena cava

*superior vena cava

*femoral vein

*greater saphenous vein

*lesser saphenous vein

*greater saphenous vein

25

In the supine individual, hydrostatic pressure at the level of the ankles is approximately:

*0 mmHG

*50 mmHg

*22 mmHg

*100 mmHg

*0 mmHG

26

The optimal patient position for imaging of the lower extremity veins is:

*supine, bed flat

*supine, Trendelenburg's position

*supine, Reverse Trendelenburg's position

*Supine, leg elevated

*None of the above

*supine, Reverse Trendelenburg's position

27

The veins of which area of the lower extremity have been found to be difficult to compress, and the 'reverse compression technique' must be used to visualize vein coaptation?

*groin

*proximal thigh

*distal thigh

*popliteal fossa

*distal thigh

28

Which type of lower extremity veins usually carry about 85% of the limb blood volume back to the heart?

*deep

*superficial

*perforators

*deep

29

Which vein is also known as the 'femoral vein'?

*common femoral vein

*superficial femoral vein

*profunda femoral vein

*inferior femoral vein

*superficial femoral vein

30

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

*no anatomic anomalies are ever present in the lower extremity veins

* Bifed/duplicated iliac veins are common

*Bifed/duplicated femoral vein is uncommon

*Bifed/duplicated femoral vein is NOT uncommon

*Bifed/duplicated femoral vein is NOT uncommon

31

Deep veins have adjacent artery. Superficial veins do not.

True or False

True

32

Which of the following pass through the fascial plane and have several valves to prevent retrograde venous flow?

*deep veins

*superficial veins

* perforator veins 

* perforator veins 

33

What vein is formed from the confluence of the Right and Left Common Iliac Veins?

*IVC

*External iliac vein

*Common femoral vein

*Internal iliac vein

*IVC

34

Virchow's Triad includes which three conditions?

*stasis, hypocoagulability, hypertension

*stasis, hypercoagulability, hyperlipidemia

*stasis, vein wall injury, hypercoagulability

*vein wall injury, hypercoagulability, congestive heart failure 

*stasis, vein wall injury, hypercoagulability

35

A condition resulting in a grossly swollen and cyanotic leg that is caused by iliofemoral venous thrombosis is known as:

*Stasis dermatitis

*Lymph edema

*Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

*Homan’s sign

*Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

36

Traditionally, venous Doppler waveforms have been displayed __________________. This is what will be expected on your scan assessment.

*above baseline

*below baseline

*below baseline

37

Which of the following is usually a symptom of superficial thrombophlebitis instead of DVT?

*persistent leg pain with acute onset

*palpable cord

*massive thigh and calf swelling

*cyanosis

*palpable cord

38

Annually, the incidence of DVT's in the U.S. are estimated to be:

*less than 1 million cases

*200,000 cases

*1-10 million cases

*over 20 million cases

*1-10 million cases

39

Which of the following is an example of venous stasis?

*cancer

*thrombophilia

*very long airplane ride

*high dose estrogen Rx

*very long airplane ride

40

According to Daigle, if a patient has all these symptoms for a DVT: persistent leg pain, persistent leg swelling, calf tenderness; then their chance of having a DVT is:

* 20%

*50%

*70%

*100%  

*50%

41

When performing compressions on the veins at the groin, the best image and best compression is obtained when the transducer is angled:

*parallel to the skin

*oblique to the skin

*perpendicular to the skin

*no particular angle

*perpendicular to the skin

42

Which of the following vessels are present at the saphenofemoral junction?

*common femoral artery, common femoral vein, great saphenous vein

*superficial femoral artery, deep femoral artery, superficial femoral vein, great saphenous vein

*superficial femoral artery, deep femoral artery, common femoral vein, great saphenous vein

*common femoral artery, superficial femoral vein, profunda femoral vein, great saphenous vein 

*superficial femoral artery, deep femoral artery, common femoral vein, great saphenous vein

43

If a thrombus is present in the GSV, what area is carefully evaluated to make sure there is no extension into the deep system?

*saphenofemoral junction

*saphenopopliteal junction

*SFV-PFV confluence

*CFV-EIV confluence

*saphenofemoral junction

44

A patient who experiences a visual disturbance and describes it as a "shade being drawn over one eye" may be describing which of the following?

*Diplopia

*Hemiparesis

*Amaurosis Fugax

*Homonymous Hemianopia 

*Amaurosis Fugax

45

In the Doppler equation, the symbol 'c' stands for which of the following?

*cosine

*theta

*transmitted frequency

*speed of sound in soft tissue

*speed of sound in soft tissue

46

Which normal cerebrovascular vessel demonstrates the highest flow resistance?

*exterrnal carotid artery

*internal carotid artery

*common carotid artery

*vertebral artery

*external carotid artery

47

Typically, dizziness is classified as a:

*anterior symptom

*posterior symptom

*lateral symptom

*medial symptom

*posterior symptom

48

What is the first branch of the ECA?

*Lingual Artery

*Superior Thyroid Artery

*Facial Artery

*Occipital Artery

*Superior Thyroid Artery

49

The NASCET study clearly demonstrated benefits of carotid endarterectomy over medical management in patients who are symptomatic and have stenosis greater than or equal to _______ %.

*80

*70

*69

*50

*70

50

Which of the following is the angiographic measurement method recommended by the SRU Consensus Conference of 2003, also known as the “NASCET” method? 

*The distal ICA lumen compared to the residual ICA lumen

*The estimated bulb diameter compared to the residual ICA lumen

*The diameter of the CCA compared to the residual ICA lumen

*The distal ICA diameter compared to the CCA diameter

*The distal ICA lumen compared to the residual ICA lumen

51

A longitudinal image of carotid plaque can sometimes be misleading as to the diameter reduction due to which of the following:

*Slice thickness of the beam

*Poor lateral resolution

* Poor Contrast resolution

*Calcium in the far field wall

*Slice thickness of the beam

52

The appearance of “early systolic deceleration” in the left vertebral artery waveform is usually due to which of the following conditions?

*Basilar artery obstruction

*Left distal vertebral

*Proximal left vertebral artery stenosis

*Proximal left subclavian stenosis

*Proximal left subclavian stenosis

53

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation given by the 2003 SRU Consensus Panel regarding criteria for interpreting carotid stenosis?

*Velocity measurements for ICA stenosis should be obtained from the point of maximum stenosis

*Doppler angles should be 60 degrees or less

*ICA should be interrogated from bulb to distal segment to reach maximum stenotic region 

*Doppler angles should only be obtained at 60 degrees

*Doppler angles should only be obtained at 60 degrees

54

Which of the following is the first branch of the ICA?

*superior thyroid artery

*vertebral artery

*ophthalmic artery

*external carotid artery

*ophthalmic artery

55

If flow is progressing right to left across the screen and the color box is steered to the right, what color would the carotid artery show up as, given that the color bar orientation is blue over red?

*red

*blue

*black/ no color

*blue

56

If flow is progressing right to left across the screen, and the color box is steered to the left, what color would the carotid artery show up as given that the color bar orientation is red over blue?

*red

*blue

*black/ no color

*blue

57

Which of the following is the correct order of origination of the great vessels from the aortic arch?

*right innominate artery, right common carotid artery, left innominate artery

*innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

*right subclavian artery, left common carotid artery, left innominate artery

*right common carotid artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery 

*innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

58

Which of the following is the first branch of the subclavian artery?

*vertebral artery

*common carotid artery

*thyrocervical trunk

*innominate artery

*vertebral artery

59

A _____mmHg gradient between left and right brachial pressures suggests subclavian stenosis

*10

*15

*20

*.20

*20

60

Measurements of an ICA stenosis in the _______ view can be misleading.

* transverse

*oblique

*coronal

*sagittal

*sagittal

61

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) differs from a stroke (CVA) because:

*a TIA leaves permanent neurologic deficits

* a TIA lasts for longer than 24 hours and completely resolves

* a TIA lasts for longer than 24 hours and completely resolves

*a TIA involves visual disturbances, and a CVA does not

* a TIA lasts for longer than 24 hours and completely resolves

62

An ICA Peak Systolic Velocity of 150 cm/s correlates to a stenosis of _____ based on the 2003 SRU Consensus criteria.

*<50%

*50-69%

* >70% to near occlusion

*occlusion

*50-69%

63

An ICA Peak Systolic Velocity of 250 cm/s correlates to a stenosis of _____ based on the 2003 SRU Consensus criteria.

*<50%

*50-69%

* >70% to near occlusion

*occlusion

* >70% to near occlusion

64

An ICA Peak Systolic Velocity of 120 cm/s correlates to a stenosis of _____ based on the 2003 SRU Consensus criteria.

*<50%

*50-69%

*>70% to near occlusion

*occlusion

*<50%

65

An ICA End Diastolic Velocity of 105 cm/s correlates to a stenosis of _____ based on the 2003 SRU Consensus criteria.

*<50%

*50-69%

*>70% to near occlusion

*occlusion

*>70% to near occlusion

66

An ICA End Diastolic Velocity of 55 cm/s correlates to a stenosis of _____ based on the 2003 SRU Consensus criteria.

*<50%

*50-69%

*>70% to near occlusion

*occlusion

*50-69%

67

Which of the following is NOT included in a standard carotid protocol?

*Patient history

*Transverse imaging

*Longitudinal imaging

*Color Doppler

*All of the above are included

*All of the above are included

68

Genrally, the best approach for ICA measurement of stenosis is:

*anterior

* anterolateral

*posterior

*posterolateral 

*posterolateral 

69

Which of the following most correctly describes the bifurcation maneuver?

*From the distal CCA, pivot the transducer medially to view the ECA

*From the distal CCA, pivot the transducer laterally to view the ECA

*From the distal CCA, angle the transducer posteriorly to view the ECA

*From the distal CCA, angle the transduce caudally to view the ECA

*From the distal CCA, pivot the transducer medially to view the ECA

70

If the orientation marker is correctly pointed toward the patient's head, then when scanning in transverse at the level of the bifurcation, the right ECA should appear on the ______ side of the screen.

*right

*left

*right

71

Which of the following color scales would typically be used for a scan of the carotid arteries?

*10

*15

*28

*45

*28

72

If utilizing Color Doppler, the technologist needs to use an angle in order to detect a frequency shift and therefore display flow. Which of the following is one way to acquire an angle when imaging a carotid artery?

*Angle the probe either laterally or medially

*Rock the probe

*Rotate the probe

*Make the color box smaller

*Rock the probe

73

According to the Doppler equation, maximum freqency shift is displayed at an angle of:

*90 degrees

*60 degrees

*45 degrees

* 0 degrees

* 0 degrees

74

What does 'NASCET' stand for?

*North American Stenotic Carotid Endarterectomy Trials

*North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trials

*Northern Alliance Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trials

*North American Stenotic Carotid Endarterectomy Table

*North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trials

75

If a patient's right arm measured 100/60 mmHg and their left arm measured 122/60 mmHg, which of the following is an appropriate conclusion based on these blood pressure findings?

*These are normal findings

*right vertebral stenosis

*left vertebral stenosis

*right subclavian stenosis

*left subclavian stensosis

*right subclavian stenosis

76

In order to image the vertebral arteries, you would place your transducer in the longitudinal orientation and view the CCA. From there, you would angle the probe more ___________ in order to visualize the vertebral artery.

*posteriorly

*anteriorly

* laterally

*medially

*posteriorly

77

What is the primary indication for imaging the subclavian arteries?

*to evaluate flow direction

*to detect stenosis

*to measure the diameter

*to evaluate for CVA

*to detect stenosis

78

Of the following values, which is the best width for a sample volume in obtaining doppler signals within the carotid arteries?

*1.0

*1.5

*1.75

* 2.0

*1.5

79

When mapping a stenosis, the technologist samples distal to the stenosis to detect turbulence, and then samples distal to the turbulence to detect:

*low flow

*increased flow

*reversal of flow

*no change in flow 

*low flow

80

Which of the following causes of stroke may result in emboli to the brain?

*Cardiac

*Carotid etiology

*Aneurysm Rupture

*Cardiac and carotid etiology

*Cardiac, carotid etiology, and aneurysm rupture

*cardiac and carotid etiology

81

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for stroke?

*diabetes

*advanced age

*tobacco abuse

*high cholesterol

*all of the above are risk factors for stroke 

*all of the above are risk factors for stroke 

82

The right and left vertebral confluence in the posterior portion of the circle of Willis to become the:

*anterior cerebral artery

*middle cerebral artery

*posterior cerebral artery

*basliar artery

*basliar artery

83

What percentage of patients have an intact functioning circle of Willis?

*25%

*50%

*75%

*100%

*50%

84

A condition that presents as a severely swollen, blue, cool lower extremity is called:

*stasis dermatitis

*phlegmasia alba dolens

* phlegmasia cerulea dolens

*cellulitis

*lymphedema

*phlegmasia cerulea dolens

85

Which of the following is not a symptom of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

*pain

*limb swelling

*increased temperature

*hyperpigmentation

*erythema

*hyperpigmentation

86

Virchow's Triad includes trauma or endothelial change, venous stasis, and _______________.

*hypertension

*hyperactivity

*thrombophilia

*hypothryroidism

*hypercoagulability

*hypercoagulability

87

A patient presents with a swollen right lower extremity. Duplex imaging demonstrates patency of the femoral, popliteal, and calf veins. However, Doppler at the common femoral level on the right is continuous, not changing with respiration, while Doppler of the left common femoral vein is phasic. These findings might suggest:

*Thrombosis of the profunda femoris vein

*Right iliac thrombosis

*Left iliac thrombosis

*Vena cava thrombosis

*This is not a diagnostically useful finding

Right iliac thrombosis

88

In the supine individual’s lower extremity during inspiration, venous blood flow is ______________ as a result of the increased intraabdominal pressure

*increased

*decreased

*unchanged

*decreased

89

The examiner listens with CW Doppler to the superficial femoral vein at mid thigh and performs a calf compression. The compression maneuver augments the signal. This finding suggests:

*Deep vein thrombosis at the iliac level

*Deep vein thrombosis at the femoral level

*Deep vein thrombosis in the calf veins

*Valvular incompetence

*This is a normal finding

*This is a normal finding

90

Primary venous insufficiency is due to which of the following?

*post-phlebitic syndrome

*chronic venous obstruction

*reduced arterial inflow

*congenital absence or defects of valves

*absence of perforating veins

*congenital absence or defects of valves

91

As you ask your patient to do a Valsalva maneuver, which flow characteristic do you normally expect to see?

*cessation of flow during the maneuver

*augmented flow when the patient relaxes and breathes normally

*increased flow as the patient bears down

*cessation of flow during the maneuver

*augmented flow when the patient relaxes and breathes normally

92

The absence of respiratory phasicity in the proximal leg veins is suggestive of:

*obstruction inferior to the transducer

*extrinsic compression distally

*obstruction superior to the transducer

*normal findings

*obstruction superior to the transducer

93

The primary concern involving patients with acute deep vein thrombosis is:

*possible venous valve damage

*lack of blood flow to the limb

*venous ulceration may form

*pulmonary embolism may occur

*rupture of the soleal sinuses

*pulmonary embolism may occur

94

What is the effect of the calf motor pump on hydrostatic pressure?

*increases

*decreases

*no change

*decreases

95

Secondary varicose veins are due to:

*previous DVT

*congenital abnormalities

*protein c deficiency

*avalvular veins

*previous DVT

96

On duplex imaging, which of the following would characterize the finding of a chronic DVT?

*thrombus is easily compressible

*thrombus is highly echogenic

*no evidence of venous insufficiency

*vessel may have increased diameter

*thrombus is isoechoic compared to the vessel being examined

*thrombus is highly echogenic

97

The Valsalva maneuver:

*Increases pressure in the thoracic cavity, decreases pressure in the abdominal cavity

*Decreases pressure in the thoracic cavity, increases pressure in the abdominal cavity

*Slows down or stops venous flow everywhere in the body

*Increases venous flow everywhere in the body

*Affects arterial, not venous, flow

*Slows down or stops venous flow everywhere in the body

98

A complication described as erythema, mild scaling, and brown discoloration of the skin is known as:

*lymphedema

*cellulitis

*stasis ulceration

*varicose veins

*stasis dermatitis

*stasis dermatitis

99

The right and left common iliac veins confluence to form the:

*right and left external iliac veins

* right and left superficial femoral veins

*inferior vena cava

*aorta

*inferior vena cava

100

The posterior tibial veins empty into the:

*anterior tibial veins

*peroneal veins

*popliteal vein

*tibioperoneal trunk

*tibioperoneal trunk

101

The superficial femoral vein is the result of the:

*continuation of the popliteal vein

*continuation of the common femoral vein

*bifurcation of the common femoral artery

*bifurcation of the profunda femoral vein

*continuation of the popliteal vein

102

The peroneal veins lie just above the ______ when viewed on the ultrasound image with the transducer on the medial aspect of the calf

*interosseous septum

*intermuscular membrane

*tibia

*fibula

*fibula

103

The vein that is difficult to compress at the adductor hiatus is the:

*common femoral vein

*great saphenous vein

*popliteal vein

*femoral vein

*femoral vein

104

Which of the following carries approximately 15% of the blood volume of the leg?

*great saphenous vein

*small saphenous vein

*femoral vein

*common iliac vein

*great saphenous vein

105

The hydrostatic pressure present in the ankle of a person who is walking is approximately:

*0 mmHg

*10 mmHg

*25 mmHg

*80 mmHg

*25 mmHg

106

Calculate the hydrostatic pressure at the ankle of an individual who is standing and measures 5 and a half feet from their heart to their ankle.

*15 mmHg

*121 mmHg

*115 mmHg

*210 mmHg 

*121 mmHg

107

About how many cases of deaths from pulmonary emboli are present in the U.S. annually?

*1-10 million

*600,000

*200,000

*less than 100,000

 

*200,000

108

If a patient has cancer, they are at risk of developing a DVT because of the associated __________.

*venous stasis

*hypercoagulability

*vein wall injury

*congestive heart failure

*hypercoagulability

109

A  thrombus in the great saphenous vein that does not extend into the common femoral vein is classified as a:

*deep venous thrombosis

*superficial thrombophlebitis

*auperficial venous incompetence

*deep venous incompetence

*superficial thrombophlebitis

110

Which of the following is NOT a typical Doppler sample site in a lower extremity venous evaluation?

*common femoral vein

*popliteal vein

*distal femoral vein

*proximal profunda femoral vein

*proximal profunda femoral vein

111

A calf vein DVT would not cause a pulmonary embolism, and that is why not every lab will image the calf veins.

True or False

False

112

Which of the following is not a symptom of an acute DVT?

*local tenderness

*chronic leg heaviness

*limb warmth

*acute limb swelling

*chronic leg heaviness

113

Which of the following is typical of chronic venous insufficiency?

*foot and ankle swelling

*ulceration

*leg heaviness

*chronic limb swelling

*all of the above are typical findings

*all of the above are typical findings

114

On a patient, spontaneous and phasic flow is evident in the proximal femoral vein. Spontaneous, nonphasic flow is evident in the ipsilateral common femoral vein. This indicates obstruction in the:

*ipsilateral iliac veins

*ipsilateral mid femoral veins

*contralateral iliac veins

*ipsilateral proximal femoral vein

*ipsilateral iliac veins

115

May-Thurner Syndrome refers to the condition where the _________________ compresses the left common iliac vein.

*left common iliac artery

*right common iliac vein

*left external iliac artery

*right common iliac artery

*right common iliac artery

116

Which of the following is a characteristic of a chronic DVT?

*hypoechoic lumen

*dilated vein size

*dilated collaterals present

*vein larger than the artery

*dilated collaterals present

117

The common femoral vein crosses the inguinal ligament to become the:

*femoral vein

*profunda femoral vein

*external iliac vein

*common iliac vein

*external iliac vein

118

A duplicated femoral vein has demonstrated to be present in _____% of studies.

*10

*25

*20

*30

*50

*30

119

The great saphenous vein drains into the ____________ at the level of the saphenofemoral junction.

*common iliac vein

*external iliac vein

*common femoral vein

*superficial femoral vein 

*common femoral vein

120

Increased hydrostatic pressure leads to a/an ___________________ in venous distention and venous pooling.

*increase

*decrease

*no change

*increase

121

If a vein with chronic DVT were to undergo recannalization, which of the following might result?

*resumption of flow through flow channels within the thrombus

*chronic venous insufficiency

*valve damage

*all of the above

*all of the above

122

Which of the following is the MOST correct term for referring to an actual clot within a vessel?

*blood clot

*thrombophlebitis

*phlebitis

*thrombus

*thromboembolism

*thrombosis

*thrombus