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Flashcards in Vascular Disease Deck (30)
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1

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

- Limited blood to extremities
- Stenosis or occlusion of aorta or limb artery
- Caused by atherosclerosis, thrombus, embolus, vasculitis, trauma

2

PAD RF

Smoking, DM, obesity, hyperlip, age, fam hx

3

PAD Presentation

Pain w/ exercise, relieved w/ rest (pain at rest too as disease progresses)

4

PAD Dx

Ankle-brachial index
Gold standard=angio

5

PAD Tx

Exercise, eliminate RF, anti-platelet, revascularization (stent)

6

Giant Cell/ Temporal Arteritis

Inflam of temporal artery (visible)

7

Temporal Arteritis RF

Age, F, polymyalgia rheumatica

8

Temporal Arteritis presentation

Unilateral HA, jaw pain, diplopia

9

Temporal Arteritis dx

- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (inflam markers)
- US (halo sign)
- Biopsy

10

Temporal Arteritis tx

NEED TX can cause blindness
High dose steroid

11

Varicose Veins

- Dysfx of vein valves, vein wall weakness
- Dilated tortuous superficial veins
- Can be asympt or have dull pain

12

Varicose Veins RF

Age, F, after preg, obesity, sedentary, fam hx, heavy lifting

13

Varicose Veins tx

Compression socks, leg elevation, exercise
Surg

14

Thrombophlebitis

- Inflam or thrombosis in vein, can be partial or complete occlusion
- Often complication of varicose vein
- Can be spontaneous, trauma, or IV cath

15

Thrombophlebitis presentation

- Erythema
- Tender
- Possible skin inf (tx w/ abx)

16

Thrombophlebitis tx

Bed rest, compression, NSAID

17

DVT RF

Age, obesity, surg, travel, cancer, preg, OCP

18

DVT presentation

- Leg cramps or calf pain
- Edema
- Redness

19

DVT dx

US, CT, VQ
Gold standard=pulm angio

20

DVT tx

Anticoagulant for up to 6 months

21

Aortic Aneurysm

Weakness and dilation of vessel wall
- Most common cause=atherosclerosis

22

Types of Aortic Aneurysm

- Saccular/ berry: only portion of vessel wall
- Fusiform/ true: involves all 3 layers, bulges on all sides
- Pseudo: damage to vessels that feed aorta (no break in wall layers)

23

Aortic Aneurysm presentation

Usually silent
- Ascending: retrosternal pain
- Descending: pain bt scapulae
- Abdominal: L flank or lumbar pain
- Rupture: severe pain, LOC, death

24

How to diagnose Aortic Aneurysm?

US, CXR, CT, MRI

25

Aortic Dissection

Tear in intimal layer of aorta, blood goes into false lumen separating intima from media and narrowing radius of true lumen

26

Aortic Dissection presentation

Abrupt onset, severe sharp tearing CP or back pain

27

Aortic Dissection physical exam findings

Hypo or HTN, pulm edema, no peripheral pulse, neurologic, MI, hematuria

28

Aortic Dissection general tx

Aggressive BP, HR, and pain control

29

Aortic Dissection Types

- Stanford Type A: proximal--affects ascending aorta, arch, and descending (60%)
*DeBakey I: involves ascending and descending
*DeBakey II: only ascending
- Stanford Type B: distal--begins beyond brachiocephalic vessels (40%)
*DeBakey III: only descending

30

Aortic Dissection tx (for different types)

- Stanford A: surgery
- Stanford B: medical, BP control