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Clin Med Cardio 1 > Chest Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Pain Deck (43)
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1

Myocardial Ischemia

Heart muscle not getting blood it needs
- Due to atherosclerosis, vasospasm, clot, tachy, anemia, hypoxic, LVH (more to perfuse)

2

Myocardial Ischemia sx

L CP can radiate to arm, jaw, epigastric

3

Types of Myocardial Ischemia

- Angina pectoris
- Unstable angina pectoris
- Myocardial infarction

4

Angina Pectoris

Pressure, tightness, squeezing, heaviness, burning
- Precipitated by some activity
- 2-10 min
- Treat w/ rest and/or nitro

5

Unstable angina pectoris

Same sx, a little stronger
- Occurs w/ less activity
- 10-20 min
- Rest and/or nitro, takes longer to resolve

6

Myocardial Infarction

Most severe. Can occur anytime.
- Up to 30 min
- No relief (or mild relief) w/ nitro

7

Aortic Stenosis

Narrowing around aortic valve, flaps become calcified, smaller area for blood to get thru

8

Aortic Stenosis sx

Gradual onset, CP + DOE, dizziness, syncope

9

Aortic Stenosis dx

Echo: systolic murmur at 2nd RICS

10

Aortic Dissection pathophys + sx

Progressive tear in aorta
- Abrupt onset of tearing sharp anterior CP, back, shoulder blade, or abd pain

11

Aortic Dissection dx

- Systolic murmur
- Pericardial rub
- Loss of peripheral pulses
- Hypo or HTN
- CT, MRA, CXR (wide mediastinum)
- EKG (to r/o)

12

Pulmonary Embolism etiology + sx

Usually formed in deep veins of legs
- Abrupt onset CP + SOB, tachy, tachypnea, hypoTN, arrhythmia, syncope

13

Pulmonary Embolism dx

CXR, CT, D-dimer, EKG (S1Q3T3)

14

Pericarditis etiology + sx

Inflam of pericardial sac
- Sharp pain, worse w/ breathing, coughing, moving
- Improved w/ tripod position

15

Pericarditis dx

- Hx and PE
- EKG, troponin

16

Pulmonary HTN sx

Progressive exertional CP + SOB, pressure, fatigue, syncope, edema

17

Pulmonary HTN dx

EKG, CXR (enlarged RV + pulm arteries), echo, R heart cath

18

Pneumonia sx

Onset is variable. Pleuritic pain, SOB, cough, sputum, fever, rales

19

Pneumonia dx

CXR (infiltrates), CBC, sputum culture

20

Pneumothorax

Collapsed lung

21

Types of Pneumothorax

Spontaneous (Primary and Secondary), Tension, Traumatic

22

Spontaneous Pneumothorax (etiology, sx, dx)

- Sudden rupture of bleb
- Sx: sudden onset pleuritic pain + SOB
- Dx: decreased breath sounds, CXR

23

Tension Pneumothorax (etiology, dx)

- Air in pleural space
- Dx: absent breath sounds, CXR

24

GERD is brought on by:

Acidic food, postprandial recumbency, alcohol, caffeine, stress

25

GERD sx

Burning, tightness, pressure
- Can last mins to hrs
- Can radiate to upper or middle back

26

GERD dx

pH, upper endoscopy, barium swallow

27

Esophageal spasm

Contractions of esophagus, irregular, uncoordinated

28

Esophageal spasm presentation

Quick (sec or min), pressure, tightness, burning, "food stuck feeling"

29

Esophageal spasm dx

Esophageal manometry, barium swallow

30

Esophageal spasm tx

Nitro will help (vasodilator)