Vascular Scanning Flashcards Preview

Vascular Scanning > Vascular Scanning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vascular Scanning Deck (97)
Loading flashcards...
1

echogenic, heterogenous, old

chronic thrombosis

2

occurs when velocities exceed the PRF

alaising

3

free floating proximal end of a thrombus

tail

4

this is a characteristic of a normal vein when applying probe pressure

compressible

5

the assignment of colors for direction and frequency shift

map

6

a useful phrase when writing reports on a venous exam

no evidence of DVT

7

to form a channel of flow through an old thrombus

recanalize

8

softly echogenic, homogeneous, new

acute thrombosis

9

many colors due to many different velocities and directions of flow

mosaic

10

something the walls of the veins should do. to meet.

coapt

11

obstructed, but not totally blocked

non-occlusive

12

the way you should treat a patient

like a loved one

13

on record

document

14

color coding that shows a wide range of velocities

variance

15

localized area of high velocity flow due to a stenosis

jet

16

color assignment to signal flow at certain assigned velocities

tag

17

transverse plane

horizontal, across

18

sagital plane

median, divided by right and left

19

coronal plane

frontal, divided by front and back

20

oblique plane

any plane angle other than transverse, sagital, or coronal

21

medial

toward the center line of the body

22

lateral

away from the center line of the body

23

proximal

closer to the point of attatchment or origin

24

distal

farther away from the point of attatchment or origin

25

cephalad

toward the head

26

caudal

toward the feet

27

superior

above, toward the head

28

inferior

below, toward the feet

29

superficial

closer to the skin surface

30

deep

farther down from the skin surface

31

anterior

toward the front of the body

32

posterior

toward the back of the body

33

ultrasound

use of high frequency sound waves for diagnostic purposes.Obtain images and flow signals from the sound waves bouncing off structures and moving blood inside the body

34

jargon

words shared by those in the same profession, used to communicate with, some words may be used differently by colleagues, the goal is to have a common vocabulary to communicate effectively and avoid confusion

35

echogenic

really bright, producing many or some echoes, also referred to as echodense, or hyperechoic
ex: old thrombus

36

anechoic

black, producing few or no echoes, also referred to as hypoechoic, ex: fresh thrombus, bakers cyst

37

suboptimal

crummy, difficult to image, a better approach may need to be utilized but may not always be an option. Ex: this study was less than optimal (suboptimal) due to patient confusion and restlessness

38

within normal limits, WNL

used rather than stating "normal", WNL is used often with the phrase Essentially. Ex: there is a mild turbulence in the ICA; possibly due to tortuosity, but the Doppler here is essentially WNL

39

appreciate

to discern (perceive or recognize) or distinguish something. ex: in the more posterior approach, we can better appreciate the crater-like formation at the origin of the ICA

40

proximal/distal limit

farthest possible point toward or away from the heart, reassures that you are imaging the vessel as far proximally or distally as you can. ex: this is the most distal limit of useful imaging in the ICA

41

characterizing lesions

plaque, calcific, dense, soft, fiberous, intimal thickening, fatty streak, minimal, mild, moderate, sever, circumferential, extensive, scattered, diffuse, true lumen vs residual lumen, homogeneous vs hetergeneous, smooth vs irregular, crater, crater-like, occlusion

42

plaque, atheroma, atheromata, areas of ateroma, areas of calcification, atheromatous development

atheroma- a greek word meaning porridge. used like "plaque" (different consistency). ex: there is extensive plaque/atheroma in this vessel. Atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries.

43

calcific, dense

type of plaque (characteristics), shows up as bright echoes in the lumen (echogenic), calcific plaque would produce a shadow, where dense plaque may not

44

soft, fibrous

describing features of certain plaque, appears darker than the calcific, dense plaque

45

intimal thickening

minimal soft plaque along the wall of the vessel, basically the same as fatty streak

46

fatty streak

minimal area of plaque on the wall of the vessel, basically the same as intimal thickening

47

minimal, mild, moderate, moderately severe, severe

grading for carotid stenosis (most common terms), generally you can categorize plaque as "appearing" minimal, mild, or moderate, to categorize plaque as moderately sever or sever is best done after using Doppler

48

circumferential

plaque around the entire circumference of the vessel, ONLY seen in transverse

49

extensive

plaque along a lenghty segment of the artery, often misused as describing a severe stenosis

50

scattered diffuse

plaque found at several levels in the artery

51

true lumen

the whole space inside a vessel

52

residual lumen

the space inside the vessel that is left by plaque or clot

53

homogeneous

used to describe plaque, one consistency

54

heterogeneous

used to describe plaque, different consistencies/material (both soft and dense areas), more likely to have ulcerative activity than homogeneous plaque

55

smooth vs irregular

used to characterize the surface appearance of plaque in an effort to indicate possible areas of ulceration

56

crater/ crater-like in appearance

this is a shape that suggests there has been an ulceration of plaque

57

occlusion

used to describe a complete blockage, often used with the word total. ex: internal echoes, no color Doppler or signal = compatible with total occlusion

58

characterizing doppler findings

laminar, sharp vs dampened, multiphasic vs monophasic, antegrade vs retrograde, turbulance, spectral, broadening, disturbed flow, window filling, gross turbulance, elevated velocities, accelerated flow through stenosis, alaising, compatible with

59

laminar

normal, orderly, non-turbulant flow, faster in the center, parabolic flow and plug flow

60

sharp

characterize sound of Doppler and a shape of a waveform, swift up and down strokes, sharp peak

61

dampened

characterizes sound of Doppler and shape of waveform, sluggish up and down strokes, rounded peak

62

multiphasic

normal arterial flow in the extremeties

63

monophasic

an issue in the extremity arteries, suggests that energy has been "dampened" out of the flow

64

antegrade

flow in the expected direction

65

retrograde

flow in the opposite direction as expected

66

turbulence, spectral broadening, disturbed flow, window filling, gross turbulence

all used to describe various degrees of flow disturbance as seen in the spectral analysis

67

elevated velocities (peak systolic/end diastolic), accelerated flow through stenosis

used to describe flow through a hemodynamically significantly lesion (blockage)

68

aliaising

nyquist limit, PRF/2, speed limit, results from high velocity blood flow; usually due to a fairly severe stenosis, use a lower frequency to eliminate aliasing

69

compatible with

a common phrase used to suggest your impression without being more definate than you should be, may also use phrases like "suggestive of, or Strongly suggestive of"

70

anatomic variant

double/multiple venous systems (common at superficial femoral level, & GSV), double renal arteries are common, variations of the carotid bifuracation (prox or distal, ICA/ECA could arise straight from the aortic arch, tortuous vessels

71

cerebrovascular collaterals

collateral develop slowly over time, collaterals develop because they have to, ability to develope collaterals is variable among individuals, contralateral hemisphere, posterior to anterior, ECA to ICA branches

72

slow development

symptoms often dont show up for many years, as atherosclerosis continues to build up collaterals expand and take over, acute = no time for alternate pathways to develope

73

collaterals pathways develope because they have to

alternate routing of blood, blood travels from higher pressure to lower pressure, obstruction = causes pressure gradients to change in surrounding vessels >over time > Ex: subclavian steal

74

development varies

1/2 of population has a complete cirlce of willis, three major alternate pathways are contralateral hemisphere, posterior to anterior, and ECA to ICA branches

75

the patient

what test does the patient need, flow to be assessed, what type of patient (obese, thin, angry, calm)

76

probes

creates the ultrasound beam, mechanical steering, and electronic steering

77

mechanical steering

use single fixed focus beam- move it around to create a real time 2 dimensional image. sector shape field of view

78

electronic steering

use a number of crystals to produce the beam, fires individual crystals in a timed sequence to direct and focus the beam creating the image. Linear - in a line, annular - in a ring, curved linear - in a line that is bowed out in the middle. Linear is used most

79

(probes cont) depth and resolution

* superficial vessels 7.5 to 10 MHz,
higher frequency = shorter wavelenght = distinguish smaller objects clearly
*deeper structures - lower frequency 2.5 to 3.5 MHz for abdominal vessels
lower frequency = longer wavelength = deeper penetration but less resolution
** MATCH THE PROBE FREQUENCY WITH THE TASK***

80

Duplex

ability to obtain both anatomic and physiologic information. (picture, color, and waveform at the same time)

81

scanner controls

controls should be grouped together based on their function but may be arranged differently on the scanner.
contrast, gain, depth, focus, pre/post processing, Doppler, measurement, annotation, color

82

brightness/contrast for the screen

NOT GAIN, brighter screen for brighter rooms, less contrast/ darker for darker rooms, works like the contrast on your TV or PC

83

master gain control

alters the amount of amplification throughout the image

84

transmit power

alters the strength of the outgoing signal being sent into the tissue (patient)

85

Depth Gain Control
Time Gain Control

TGC, Controls the amount of gain in the image at different depths up or down in the field of view, slider switches in a row on one side

86

Focal Zone/ Transmit Zone

multielement probes (electronically steered) have this capability, set at depth you want to be most focused (keep adjusted at area of interest), may have more than one focal zone, decreases frame rate

87

pre processing

involves the computers assignment of gray scale levels to the return echoes, these are stored in the scan converter and then displayed on the screen

88

post processing

involves changing the gray scale values as they are brought out of the scan converters memory for display, can be manipulated to enhance certain features (ex: fresh thrombus thrombus

89

pre/post processing

control over the dynamic range of the gray scale. lower setting (less db) may be better for making a dark vessel lumen stand out

90

Doppler

Doppler on control - vary. may show just the waveform OR image and waveform
Doppler Gain control - to optimize the spectral display
Doppler Scale controls - allows to move baseline and to change scale of Doppler display to accomodate the waveform amplitude

91

Temporal Tap

an actual tap on the tempel

92

measurement controls

make measurements on the image (vessel diameter), and spectral display (peak systolic velocity). some machines may make some calculations for you and some machines may have a calculation package

93

field of veiw / magnify

zoom, change the size of the area imaged on the screen, reduce field of view = vessels look bigger on the screen, may create a grainier image

94

annotation

enter patient info and lable images on the screen, also has the feature of body marker on the side or arrow to point out area of interest

95

documentation systems

stored image for future reference and for the reading physician, polaroid or matrix camera, digital printer, and PACS

96

reading physician

relies on you to gather the best information possible so the reader can accurately interpret the study and have good info for the referring physician.
technologists do not diagnose although there may be situations when the tech would give a preliminary impression (ex: acute DVT)
interpretive skills take longer to learn than your scanning skills

97

referring physician

As a tech
*may be a source of education for the referring physician, may speak with them regarding a study
*may be an important source of education to the patient also
Ultrasound is very operator dependent!