Vehicle Anatomy & Science Flashcards
What are the 4 classifications of vehicles?
- Passenger cars
- Light duty trucks
- Medium and heavy duty trucks - designed for hauling cargo and specialty chassis applications. Examples include construction vehicles and fire trucks.
- Medium duty trucks: 13,000 - 33,000 GVW
- Heavy duty trucks: over 33,000 GVW
- Buses and specialty vehicles - includes agricultural equipment
What are some hazards associated with heavy equipment?
- Harder to stabilize
- Special cargo
- Crush injuries
- Pinch points
- Rollover entrapment
- Potential and kinetic energy
What are the 8 sides to every vehicle?
- Driver’s side
- Passenger’s side
How are door/roof posts identified in a vehicle?
The structural members that surround the doors and support the roof of a vehicle are identified alphabetically from the front to rear (i.e. A-post, B-post, C-post, etc.).
How strong are the posts of a vehicle?
The posts in a vehicle have to hold 1.5 times the weight of the car.
What materials are used to construct cars?
- Carbon fiber
- Cast iron
- Composite materials
What is a firewall or bulkhead?
A partition between the engine compartment and the passenger compartment of a vehicle designed to protect occupants from the engine and its associated hazards.
What is a dashboard support system?
A safety feature that prevents the dashboard from collapsing onto occupants during front impact collisions. It’s comprised of a metal bar that connects the A posts from driver’s side to passenger side.
What hazard does magnesium pose?
It reacts with water! When water is applied to vehicle fires as an extinguishing agent, components made with magnesium can cause high heat fires. These components include:
* Mag wheels
* Valve covers
* Steering columns
* Mounting brackets on antilock bracking systems
* Transmission casings
* Engine blocks
* Frame supports
* Exterior body components
What determines the structural integrity of a vehicle?
What is a chassis?
The basic operating system of a motor vehicle. It consists of the frame, suspension system, wheels, and steering mechanism.
What is the concept of dual tools?
Always using two tools during rescue operations so that if one fails, there’s a backup in place for safety.
What are the 3 types of vehicle frames?
- Full or rigid - the vehicle’s body attaches to a rigid frame (AKA “body-on-frame”). These are least affected by collision and can be found on larger vehicles such as trucks that pull heavy loads.
- This design has been around since the creation of vehicles
- Accommodates body style changes without having to reengineer the frame
- There is a full frame from bumper to bumper
- Applies to any vehicle with a chrome bumper and buses / trucks
- If a body-on-frame vehicle is on it’s side and the frame is intact then you can use the frame to stabilize it.
- Unibody - a method of vehicle construction in which the frame and body are built as one unit instead of attaching the body to a frame; used in most modern cars.
- Also known as “unitized body” or “integral frame”
- The vehicle’s stress bearing elements and sheet metal body parts are built together as one unit
- “Truss roof vehicle” - taking the roof off when it’s rolled over on it’s side is very dangerous
- No support rails
- Used for sports cars (i.e. Mustangs, Corvettes, etc.)
- Space - aluminium skeletons that are similar to aircraft frames upon which the aluminum, plastic, or composite skin of the vehicle’s body is attached. The internal structure of space frames provides the structural support for the vehicle while the skin provides aerodynamics, styling, and protection from the elements.
- “Bird cage” configuration
- Engine is connected to bird cage
- AKA a “3 piece car”
- Designed to support the entire load of the vehicle even if the outer skin is damaged
- Lighter than body-on-frame (up to 50% less weight)
- Designed for performance and fuel efficiency
- Stabliize these cars on the posts
What is the most common type of frame used in vehicle construction today?
What is a subframe?
The subframe is the structure below the frame that supports the axle, suspension, and powertrain. It serves to distribute heavy loads and isolate vibrations.
* ESP - electronic stability program
* Sensors in suspension
* Can drop the car up to 2 inches