Verbal Strategies Flashcards Preview

GMAT > Verbal Strategies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Verbal Strategies Deck (220):
1

If you see a sent that supports the conclusion, "because of", "as a result of", "due to", "since", "after all"

"Premise
- All arguments will have a premise (only one that does), not all will have a conclusion
- Can be fact or opinion
- Signal words like because signal that it supports the conclusion"

2

If you see a sent that negates the conclusion or premise, "however, but, yet, even so, nevertheless

"Counterpremise, counterpoint, could look like background / premise, but difference is that this negates
- if another sentence says however and goes against this, then this is the counter"

3

If you see a sent. that is context, doesn't support / negate conclusion"

"Background
- Could be tacked onto a conclusion, be careful "

4

If you see sent. that is the author's opinion or claim, "therefore, thus, consequently"

"Conclusion
- Could be part of a sentence, background / premise/ counter right before"

5

If you see a claim that looks like a conclusion, but another conclusion too

"Intermediate conclusion
- Use because A....therefore B test
- B is the final conclusion, A may be a premise or an intermed concl"

6

Steps for CR questions and what not to do

1. Identify the question
2. Deconstruct argument (FIND CONCL)
3. State the goal
4. Work from wrong to right (impt to not get tempted by wrong answer, only compare once and move on, you don't know it you won't know it)

DON'T skim the argument and not understand big pic -> you end up rereading a bunch of times. BAD

7

Structure based CR ?s

Describe the role of 2 boldfaces
Describe the argument

8

Assumption based ?s

Find the assumption
Strengthen the argument
Weaken the argument
Evaluate the argument - find something that'll help the arg
Find the flaw

All of these require you to find the assumption

9

Evidence based ?s

These don't have conclusions or assumptions, just premises

Inference - what can be concluded (find something that's true)
Explain a discrepancy

10

What's the role of the boldface? Trick:

Ask 1. fact or opinion 2. for or against 3. are the 2 bolds same or opposite side
- In choices if see evidence --> fact, claim --> opinion

11

if it says CONTRADICT the argument

The statement must really undermine conclusion. If there's a perhaps, then author isn't totally disregarding conclusion.

Need to see that the author is directly attacking

12

Watch out for 1 wrong word

Choice may have correct except 1 word: budget shortfall vs recycling plan effect

13

4 steps for Role questions

1. ID ? - boldface --> role, 2 people in Q
2. Deconstruct arg - find C, P, X, +/-
3. State goal - know desired labels! (+/i, looking for C? P? A?
4. Wrong to right - beware of half right choices

14

4 steps for finding assumption questions

1. ID ? - "assume / assumption"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, think of assumptions
3. Goal - assumption must be true for concl
4. Wrong to right - use negation, negate assumption and see if it hurts concl - if you're stuck (time consuming though)
Beware of assumption with no tie to conclusion, irrelev comparison, reverse logic

15

Negating choices -
better than -->
Some of them liked it more -->

equal to or less than (don't forget equal)

None of them liked it more

16

Specific numbers in answer choices to be an assumption

Be wary of them, is that number absolutely true? If it can be another number, that assumption doesn't have to be true

17

Strengthen / weaken concl - beware of directionally say + or -, but

not concluding the same thing
If ex is employees lose confidence bc of co viability, talking about a competitor's raise is a negative, but doesn't have anything to do with co viability and losing confidence bc of it

18

4 steps for strengthen Qs

1. ID question - "strengthen, support, if true", fill in the blank "because, since"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, brainstorm assump
3. Goal - find new piece of info that supports arg
4. Wrong to right - beware of no tie to concl, weaken answers

19

Weaken answers can attack assumption

ex: employees lose confid in viability --> quit
weaken: competitor provides health ins so that's why they quit, not bc lose confid

20

Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion EXCEPT

5th one doesn't have to strengthen ,could also be neutral, does nothing. Label S, W, N - so you know to pick the S or N

Label Q as Wex

21

4 steps for weaken Q

1. ID Q - "weaken, undermine, if true"
2. Deconstruct - find concl, think of assump
3. Goal - weaken or make arg less valid, ARE THERE OTHER REASONS WHY
4. Wrong to right - beware of reverse logic (strengthen) or no tie to arg, overgeneralize concl and ignores 1 group

22

Watch out for which perspective you're proving, ex: contention by the gvt

Gvt's perspective - even if it says contention by, that just means the disagreement made by the gvt

23

CR questions - don't forget to read the....

QUESTION! ID the Q **

24

As vs like

As in front of clause
Like in front of noun, never clause

25

Inference: Draw a conclusion Q - you have to

Find an answer that's actually true by what you're given. you're not making any actual new conclusions

26

During rc, look for main point, then for examples / details

Note if for or against main point

27

Aggravate v aggravating

Worsen

Irritating

28

Known as vs known to be

Named

Acknowledge as

29

Loss of vs loss in

No longer in possession

Decline in value

30

Mandate vs have a mandate

Command

Have authority from voters

31

Native of vs native to

Person from

Species originated in

32

Range of vs ranging

Variety of

Varying

33

Rate of vs rates for

Speed or frequency

Prices for

34

Rise vs raise

General increase

Bet or salary increase

35

Try to do vs try doing

Seek to accomplish

Experiment w

36

RC steps

1. Find the point of the passage - 1 sent
2. Purpose of ea paragraph - 1 word ea

37

Rc general question steps

Id question
Find support - look at your map for purpose q
Predict answer
Eliminate wrong to right

38

Parallelism flags

Both phrases must be ||
- X as well as Y
- X but also Y
- X but Y
- X rather than Y

39

Comparison (more than)

Both phrases must be ||
more X than Y

40

Parallelism - words after

don't have to be identical
- WHO speak english and WHOSE parents don't
- IN the box AND ON the table (prepositions can vary)

41

Open parallel marker vs closed
Open: X but Y
Closed: not only X, but also Y

Open - check for ambiguity, need similar signal word

Closed - needs exact match

42

||- not X,

but rather Y (X rather Y doesn't work)
- rather alone IS WRONG (fine if it's not X or Y, RATHER C)
- not X or Y is fine
- not X, Y is wrong

43

||- not only X,

but also Y (can't use but also alone)

44

||- Between X

and Y

45

||- Consider X,

Y

46

||- in contrast to X,

Y

47

||- Distinguish X

from Y

48

||- Estimate X

to be Y

49

||- Mistake X

for Y

50

||- Think of X

as Y

51

||- View X

as Y

52

||- Whether X

or Y

53

|| Linking verbs:

Must be ||
this politician IS a step forward (politiican not parallel to step forward)
- appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, represent, resemble, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

54

Noun modifiers - which that who whose whom where when

Place as close to the noun

Don’t get tricked by possessive noun (incorrect)

55

Who whom which whose - when to use what

Who whom - people
Which - things
Whose - both

56

Where vs in which

Where - place, generally MUST be a PHYSICAL location
In which - condition, circumstance , arrangement

57

When vs in which

Both for periods of time

58

Adverbial modifier placement

More free
But need to make sure you know which verb it modifies

59

Which vs ing

Which modifies noun only never s clause

60

Many vs much

Many is countable much isn’t

61

Few vs little

Few is countable little isn’t

62

Fewer vs less

Fewer is countable less isn’t

10 items or fewer

63

Fewest vs least

Fewest is countable

64

Numerous vs great

Numerous is countable great isn’t

65

Number v amount

Number is countable

66

It’s numbers are greater than it more than

$20 less than or fewer than

Greater than

Less than, greater than

67

When you see comma (signal), look out for

Modifier issues (figure out what the phrase is referring to)

68

When you see -ly, it's a ____ and can modify ____

-ly is an adverb, can modify everything except noun

69

If you see phrase that starts with who, what, which, etc. and is parallel to another

the other phrase has to start with same who, what which, etc.

70

When you see modifiers and commas, check if they are

commas are only needed if they're essential (if noun is vague and you need to clarify then shouldn't be in comma)

71

SC Steps

1. Read for meaning
2. Look at answer choices - get hint for splits
If you can't figure out what, check the following
- Find core: Look for noun and verb - complete sent (structure), ELIMINATE prep phrases or other distractions
- Verb - is tense right? (every verb, and if they match tense)
- BEWARE OF COMP MARKERS - "THAN"
- Modifier issues - where are commas / phrases.

72

that vs which - what's needed

, which needs comma
which only refers to nouns, not clause (RIGHT BEFORE IT, unless there's some prepositional sword OF Stevenson - still fine)

73

If you see "which" modify a phrase

** which is only used to modify noun, not an entire phrase

Phrase needs to be modified by a verb modifier, change to -ing

74

adverb modifies

adverbial modifier

everything but noun or pronoun
(-ly)

adverbs, verbs, adj, phrases, entire clauses - just no nouns
Ex:

75

adjective modifies

noun or pronoun only

76

When you see "which", "that", "who", "whose", "whom", "where", "when"

noun modifier, MUST modify noun

That is more complex - can signal other types

77

noun modifier

Modifies noun / pronoun only
Answers - who, what, which, where
Must be placed as close to noun as possible

Ex: A hardworker, Sue...
Ex: the road, which cut across

78

"who, whom" modifies

people

79

Less or fewer (dollars, gallons, money)

Unit nouns are not countable (1 money, 2 moneys?)
Less than 10 dollars, not fewer than 10 gallons
Less money not fewer money

80

The "number" of birds is xx than
Greater vs more

actual word "number", "numbers" goes with greater

Greater is not countable, greater likelihood, greater the chance

More is countable, More likely, studied more (hours)

81

"whose" modifies

people OR things (don't forget)
Ex: the town whose ...

82

"where" modifies xxx, but not xxx

where modifies place
but not situation, circumstance

83

"in which" can modify

age,
period of time (like "when")
Circumstance, situation

84

when you see "such" "that" BEWARE

Correct: so [adjective like awesome] that ....
Correct: history of planes was such that ....
INCORRECTl SO new SUCH THAT

85

"Yet" is used when

the 2nd phrase happens DESPITE the 1st phrase

86

Who's countable
Much vs many

many

87

Who's countable
More, most

Works with both countable and not countable nouns

88

Who's countable
Few vs little

Few

89

Who's countable
Enough vs all

Works with both countable and not countable

90

Who's countable
Fewer vs Less

Fewer
Ex: 10 items or fewer, not less

91

Who's countable
Least vs Fewest

Fewest

92

Who's countable
Number vs amount

Number

93

Who's countable
Great vs Numerous

Numberous

Ex: Numerous books
Great courage

94

present perfect (has/have) can't

appear in sentence twice, unless there's a different time period for the two

95

comma -ing is a

adverbial modifier

check if it modifies the main subject and verb (can't modify a noun)

also, check tense, the comma -ing takes on the main verb's tense so you have to check if it makes sense

** can modify both noun or phrase

96

In Sc, when you see alternating tense (did and having done)

Watch for incorrect tense
Past tense shouldn't go with present perfect (having done) if it's referring to something in the past

97

when you see "such" "that" BEWARE

Correct: so [adjective like awesome] that ....
Correct: history of planes was such that ....
INCORRECTl SO new SUCH THAT

98

when you see so new "for" + xxx

xx should be a person, not object (this is so new for a plane, meaning is incorrect)

99

turn to you for help TO BUY or IN BUYING

for help in buying

100

When you see "that" inserted, watch out for

change in meaning
watch for an object ("plan") with a human action - ex: plan can't suggest

101

trick for testing "from which"

switch it

the table from which she stole the food
she stole the food from the table (replace which )

102

When you see prepositional phrases

eliminate them to get core, but make sure the subject verb makes sense!
Ex: proliferation (of computer games) was 1st developed - doesn't make sense, drop prolif

103

When you see semi colons or lots of commas, check for

comma splices, run ons

104

the number of which - which refers to

must refer to a noun stated before (can't be wolves' population if it's supposed to be "wolves")

105

when you see modifiers, check for

meaning - sometimes, it doesn't make sense ("when" means when A, B happens), but if A and B happen simultaneously, can't use "when"

106

when you see a noun modifier (starts with "who", "which", "that", "where", etc.)

look for the noun that it modifies (must be close)

107

seldom more than X BUT / AND Y

contrasting point so use "BUT"
seldom more than 2 ft tall BUT 200 lbs

108

has been found + _____

to be

109

If you're stuck between 2 choices and don't know about grammar, make sure to check

meaning of the sentences (does the noun of the modifier make sense)

110

CR - watch out for equations, when you see
- wages and output, think...

# of hours spent to build
R*T=D or Work

111

CR - when you see questions in choices, evaluate the arg

If yes / no, must destroy or support the arg (nothing weak)

112

CR - when they use analogy to support a concl, question if

Is analogy applicable. good place to test assumption, weaken / strengthen arg

113

if question has not more likely, you can sub

just as likely so it's eaiser to understand

114

Marc's 3 tricks / techniques for CR

1. Therefore test to find concl
2. Negation technique to test assumption (Find assumption Qs) --> ESP when you see a "none/no". Does negated choice destroy concl?
--> Weaken Q - negation should change from weaken (Q as is) to strengthen
3.. Plug in choices (if assumpion Q) to see if it makes sense with concl

115

CR - bold face Qs, first

read everything before labeling bold

116

Marc's RC tecninque steps

1. Read psg without notes
2. Note 1st and last sent, transition words
3. 1 word / phrase summary of basic purpose and pharagraph

117

premises / background can be facts, facts can support

the conclusion (even if there's no opinion)

118

CR - strengthen arg questions, pay attn to

elements in concl, need to address all elements (all 3 in a list, both cause and effect)

119

CR - weaken Q, when they use analogy as evidence, watch out for

analogy is similar to the situation (weaken it by saying they're not the same situations)

120

making them DECREASE in size - what type of word is this?

used as a verb

the coach got mad, making the players RUN across the block

121

"being" in a sentence - check if it's wrong

most of the time, can be wrong

122

For CR

1. go through errors you know are for sure wrong (don't identify the one that you think is right) --> especially with CR
2. then pick the one that you' think is right

123

Marc's RC tecninque steps

1. Read psg without notes
2. Note 1st and last sent, transition words
3. 1 word / phrase summary of basic purpose and pharagraph

124

CR - fill in blank could be what question type

strengthen arg (esp if it's after "since"

125

CR - weaken Q, when they use analogy as evidence, watch out for

analogy is similar to the situation (weaken it by saying they're not the same situations)

126

CR - factors related to questions about traffic and cars driving

* miles driven
* # cars
* highway vs local routes
* age of drivers

127

CR - eval the discrep

Think does this exacerbate the discrep or lessen? Trap is when it exacerbates

128

From which is Ok or not?

From which is fine
Ex: the farm from which the pig came --> the pig came from the farm

129

goal of vs goal to doing

goal of doing this

130

SC - Parallelism

1. Look for AND markers
2. Check all phrases being parallel

131

SC - Modifiers

1. Find core first
2. Check modified subject

132

SC - Comparison

1. Look for AND, markers
2. Find all comparisons and check if parallel

133

when you see more slowly, vs slower

more slowly is an adv, modifies a verb
slower is primarily an adj (when it comes to ||, be strict about more slowly vs slower)

134

SC - parallelism, when you see "both"..."and", check

words to the right being compared

135

comma -ing VS. -ing

comma -ing becomes adverbial modifier

-ing with no comma modifies a noun next to it

136

Small SD means numbers in set are

close together, closer to mean

137

Large SD menas numbers in set are

far apart, farther to mean

138

If you add numbers farther away from the mean, SD will

increase

139

If you add numbers close to the mean, SD will

decrease

140

Does SD ever stay the same if you add numbers to a set

no

141

DS - When there's a choice that's so off, think this answer

C

142

DS - when similar choices, think

A or B

143

old avg vs new avg

new avg = old avg * n + extra term / (n+1)

144

If you multiply a set by 0.8, SD changes by

0.8SD

145

If you multiply a set by 2, SD chanes by

2SD

146

If you add or ubstract a set by 2

SD doesn't change

147

Pronoun must refer to ---

antecedent htat's present

148

SC- pronoun steps

1. Check all pronouns and their antecedents (start from near to far)

149

dated+ ....

dated at, not dated to be or dated as being

150

SC - follow through - if you're not sure, find another split

there always will be multiple

151

evidence for vs evidence that

evidence for + noun
evidence that } longer clause

152

not only X,

- but also Y
- but Y

153

fossils dated -----

dated AT

154

more ...than ... can you say more...over

no, more ...over is wrong

155

considered AS a better person or considered AS better

none is right! considered TO BE a better person or just considered BETTER

156

indicate that [phrase] or indicate [phrase]

need that before the phrase

157

ability of vs abiltiy to

ability to

158

if X were, ...

would Y

159

comparison marker

like, unlike
as
than
different from
in contrast to / with

160

Eval the arg w Qs in choices

if you answer yes and no, it must strengthen AND weaken

161

Essential+---

For, not in

162

Weakening qs

rephrase Q to a 10 yr old, what am I looking for?

163

Be careful of weakening EXCEPT questions

write Wex and note all the ones that W

164

"must be true" CR Qs

State the conclusion so answer must be directly from sentences given
- if you see a lot of percents and detail, go with the more specific one (with confusing math)

165

To think of different assumptions, think of

- different causes (even if concl says cause was good, doesn't say what's the cause)
- is it cause -> effect or effect --> cause

166

RC trick for inference / specific Q

- to find area, look for SPECIFIC words from Q in psg (don't assume cost = premium)
- look out for context clues near the area (neg or pos words)
- find the area and read closely - answer isn't far away
- if not given identical phrase, find closest or look harder and find the match
- find the link, why are they telling me

167

proportion of women IS or ARE

The number of women

A number of women

ARE

Is

Are (a number.... depends)

168

Parallelism trick - once you spot "as", "like", "than"

don't forget to look FRONT AND BACK, see if there are words earlier that need to be parallel or after

169

Common RC and CR errors

Too extreme with all, never
Out of scope, past what passage talks about
Not relevant, doesn’t answer q
Contradicts premise
1-2 wrong words
Uses same words but diff meaning
Revenue vs profit
Wrong analogy
Cause !--> Effect

170

whether...

it's fine alone! don't need whehter or not

171

RC trick

get excited about passage, narrate it yourself with oh that's interesting or however - oh that's gonna be opp

172

When in doubt think

Singular

173

Sanam is singular or plural?

Both! Depends
Some
All
None
Any
More most

174

Pong is a game from which has have descended many current games

Have bc flip it
Many games have descended from pong

175

Of which needs a ——
Of them needs a —-

Of which were (needs a verb)
All particles, some of which were discovered

Of them (no verb)
All particles, some of them discovered

176

Nasene singular or plural

always singular!

Neither
Anyone — not any
Someone — not some
Each
No one — not none
Everyone —not all

These end in one or is selective that’s why singular

177

If he were ....then he

would...

178

so...as

NOT ALLOWED

179

RC tip for primary purpose

1. transition words
2.general context

180

that vs those

that is singular so has to modify singular noun
those is plural

181

Ron's RC method - take notes

Read - FOCUS WORDS: look for non Jargon English (however, were once among) and think why it's there

Table of content style - find main theme and what author does with it

Details - know what kind of info and why it's there (support or explain)

182

Ron's RC method - main purpose Q

Compress notes into few words and come up with an answer yourself
- then check choices
If stuck - think of each choice as an essay prompt and figure out what the essay should look like - compare to psg
Ex: "suggest an alternative" - must argue for a new method and why better than old
Ex: "initiate debate" - must make argument against theory

183

Ron's RC method - Detail questions

**Think like manager, not expert but know where to look
Find the place in psg (read diligently, don't skim over words) and think of choice b4 looking at choice
- want a boring, rephrase of txt
Admit when you're lost

184

TRAP - RC detail - beware of choices w same

adjectives/descriptions (not necess noun) as in passage

185

without X, ----? Y

with / without pairs with OR, never NOR

NEITHER...NOR...

186

growing - growing up is what kind of word

adj.

187

S/V - single box of crayons that is or are?

either is fine!
BC verb is part of THAT PHRASE

188

who, what, ...how in ||

if you see the w words, they should exist in || clauses

189

Ron's SC method

Step 1: understand meaning like if you're reading a sign
Step 2 - I like S/V, check || and comparison, pronoun
** dilligently read vertically, check EVERY WORD

190

Ron's || method

Step 1: read for meaning
2: look for || markers like "and", but, as and check mechanical || (n), and whether it should be || (s) and if structure is right (f)

191

Ron's CR method - step 1

TRANSLATION INTO SPECIFICS
- read question first
- spot every word that needs to be translated
- write out the specific question
(why opp of concl is true, other factors - to strengthen or weaken, reason A --> B, why something happens DESPITE, why not doing something isn't good)
- has to tie back to conclusion!!

192

Ron's CR method - statistics

When you see "total", profit, quantity, etc. break it down
# of hours, # of ppl, rate
- don't forget other rev sources (coffee +pastries)

193

Ron's CR method - personal immersion

You are the person who is directly involved, has the GREATEST INFLUENCE ON OUTCOME

194

CR - be careful of choices that are hypothetical

You need hypothetical to be true for choice to be good

195

Ron's CR- translate to specific Q

- which choice shows that the connection btwn x and the result/goal/concl
- which choice offers another reason
- which choice is additional suport
- which choice shows that this will NOT happen

196

CR - question you ask shouldn't include

facts alreayd given in premise, if they talk about it previously, then you have to accept it. Unclog st will lower cost. Problem is the cost, but the real Q is if their plan will unclog st, not lower cost

197

CR - always 1 correct answer

black, white white white white
dark grey, white white white white

198

% of something is singular or plural

dep on the something
10% of executives ARE
1/4 of the chocolate bar IS

199

Pronoun signals

it, they, this, those,

200

SC - comparison trick

right to left - look at the 2nd phrase first and see what the 1st phrase is compared to

201

SC - pronoun

never tests for ambiguous pronoun - check if it matches antecedent or if there is even one

202

Ron's CR steps

1. read Q and translate to specific Q
2. if stat- break it down. if not, personal immersion
3. come up with your own choice or make a criteria
4. judge the choices

203

CR - eval the arg trick

think weaken

204

SC - comparison

0. UNDERSTAND MEANING
1. Look for marker ("as", "more/less than", "compared to")
2. Look at 2nd phrase and figure out what should be compared

205

Common Cr error

Doesn’t apply or answer your specific q

206

Found fossils from what appear(s)—-(singular or plural)

What is the subject - singular

207

Both...

And

NOT as well as NOR in addition

208

Find / found...

to be

NOT as

209

this is proof ....

of or that

NOT for

210

ways ....do something

ways TO do something
ways OF doing something

not ways that, so that, thus,

211

not...but ---

not...but instead is fine

212

fail ...

fail to [verb]

213

the likelihood ...

of verb-ing

214

enough..

enough....to or enough to

215

equally likely vs as...as

2 people are equally likely
person A is as likely as B

216

combination of X and of Y

having 2 "of" is fine

217

convince that ...

that (subject and verb)

218

convinced of...

of (noun)

219

argue for vs argue that

argue for [noun]
argue that [phrase]

220

energy expended ...

on / for - both work