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Flashcards in Verbal Strategies Deck (28):
1

If you see a sent that supports the conclusion, "because of", "as a result of", "due to", "since", "after all"

"Premise
- All arguments will have a premise (only one that does), not all will have a conclusion
- Can be fact or opinion
- Signal words like because signal that it supports the conclusion"

2

If you see a sent that negates the conclusion or premise, "however, but, yet, even so, nevertheless

"Counterpremise, counterpoint, could look like background / premise, but difference is that this negates
- if another sentence says however and goes against this, then this is the counter"

3

If you see a sent. that is context, doesn't support / negate conclusion"

"Background
- Could be tacked onto a conclusion, be careful "

4

If you see sent. that is the author's opinion or claim, "therefore, thus, consequently"

"Conclusion
- Could be part of a sentence, background / premise/ counter right before"

5

If you see a claim that looks like a conclusion, but another conclusion too

"Intermediate conclusion
- Use because A....therefore B test
- B is the final conclusion, A may be a premise or an intermed concl"

6

Steps for CR questions and what not to do

1. Identify the question
2. Deconstruct argument
3. State the goal
4. Work from wrong to right (impt to not get tempted by wrong answer, only compare once and move on, you don't know it you won't know it)

DON'T skim the argument and not understand big pic -> you end up rereading a bunch of times. BAD

7

Structure based CR ?s

Describe the role of 2 boldfaces
Describe the argument

8

Assumption based ?s

Find the assumption
Strengthen the argument
Weaken the argument
Evaluate the argument - find something that'll help the arg
Find the flaw

All of these require you to find the assumption

9

Evidence based ?s

These don't have conclusions or assumptions, just premises

Inference - what can be concluded (find something that's true)
Explain a discrepancy

10

Common CR issues

- P=R-C
- Amount vs %
- cause and effect is flipped

11

What's the role of the boldface? Trick:

Ask 1. fact or opinion 2. for or against 3. are the 2 bolds same or opposite side
- In choices if see evidence --> fact, claim --> opinion

12

Be careful of extreme words - if it says CONTRADICT the argument

The statement must really undermine conclusion. If there's a perhaps, then author isn't totally disregarding conclusion.

Need to see that the author is directly attacking

13

Watch out for 1 wrong word

Choice may have correct except 1 word: budget shortfall vs recycling plan effect

14

4 steps for Role questions

1. ID ? - boldface --> role, 2 people in Q
2. Deconstruct arg - find C, P, X, +/-
3. State goal - know desired labels! (+/i, looking for C? P? A?
4. Wrong to right - beware of half right choices

15

4 steps for finding assumption questions

1. ID ? - "assume / assumption"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, think of assumptions
3. Goal - assumption must be true for concl
4. Wrong to right - use negation, negate assumption and see if it hurts concl - if you're stuck (time consuming though)
Beware of assumption with no tie to conclusion, irrelev comparison, reverse logic

16

Negating choices -
better than -->
Some of them liked it more -->

equal to or less than (don't forget equal)

None of them liked it more

17

Specific numbers in answer choices to be an assumption

Be wary of them, is that number absolutely true? If it can be another number, that assumption doesn't have to be true

18

Strengthen / weaken concl - beware of directionally say + or -, but

not concluding the same thing
If ex is employees lose confidence bc of co viability, talking about a competitor's raise is a negative, but doesn't have anything to do with co viability and losing confidence bc of it

19

4 steps for strengthen Qs

1. ID question - "strengthen, support, if true", fill in the blank "because, since"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, brainstorm assump
3. Goal - find new piece of info that supports arg
4. Wrong to right - beware of no tie to concl, weaken answers

20

Weaken answers can attack assumption

ex: employees lose confid in viability --> quit
weaken: competitor provides health ins so that's why they quit, not bc lose confid

21

Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion EXCEPT

5th one doesn't have to strengthen ,could also be neutral, does nothing. Label S, W, N - so you know to pick the S or N

Label Q as Wex

22

4 steps for weaken Q

1. ID Q - "weaken, undermine, if true"
2. Deconstruct - find concl, think of assump
3. Goal - weaken or make arg less valid
4. Wrong to right - beware of reverse logic (strengthen) or no tie to arg

23

Watch out for which perspective you're proving, ex: contention by the gvt

Gvt's perspective - even if it says contention by, that just means the disagreement made by the gvt

24

CR questions - don't forget to read the....

QUESTION! ID the Q **

25

As vs like

As in front of clause
Like in front of noun, never clause

26

Common CR inference (draw conclusion) errors

Not relevant (IRV)

Info not provided in argument, can’t conclude. No evidence for a random claim (IDK)

1-2 wrong words

Test wth extremes, can this conclusion be possible with very little or a billion

Contradict what’s been given

27

Inference: Draw a conclusion Q - you have to

Find an answer that's actually true by what you're given. you're not making any actual new conclusions

28

CR: watch out for % vs amount. If they give you % and average, can't say

same thing will happen to amount. What if 1 point is 10 billion and everyone else is 10

Think of extremes in verbal too