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Flashcards in Verbal Strategies Deck (141):
1

If you see a sent that supports the conclusion, "because of", "as a result of", "due to", "since", "after all"

"Premise
- All arguments will have a premise (only one that does), not all will have a conclusion
- Can be fact or opinion
- Signal words like because signal that it supports the conclusion"

2

If you see a sent that negates the conclusion or premise, "however, but, yet, even so, nevertheless

"Counterpremise, counterpoint, could look like background / premise, but difference is that this negates
- if another sentence says however and goes against this, then this is the counter"

3

If you see a sent. that is context, doesn't support / negate conclusion"

"Background
- Could be tacked onto a conclusion, be careful "

4

If you see sent. that is the author's opinion or claim, "therefore, thus, consequently"

"Conclusion
- Could be part of a sentence, background / premise/ counter right before"

5

If you see a claim that looks like a conclusion, but another conclusion too

"Intermediate conclusion
- Use because A....therefore B test
- B is the final conclusion, A may be a premise or an intermed concl"

6

Steps for CR questions and what not to do

1. Identify the question
2. Deconstruct argument (FIND CONCL)
3. State the goal
4. Work from wrong to right (impt to not get tempted by wrong answer, only compare once and move on, you don't know it you won't know it)

DON'T skim the argument and not understand big pic -> you end up rereading a bunch of times. BAD

7

Structure based CR ?s

Describe the role of 2 boldfaces
Describe the argument

8

Assumption based ?s

Find the assumption
Strengthen the argument
Weaken the argument
Evaluate the argument - find something that'll help the arg
Find the flaw

All of these require you to find the assumption

9

Evidence based ?s

These don't have conclusions or assumptions, just premises

Inference - what can be concluded (find something that's true)
Explain a discrepancy

10

Common CR issues

- P=R-C
- Amount vs %
- cause and effect is flipped

11

What's the role of the boldface? Trick:

Ask 1. fact or opinion 2. for or against 3. are the 2 bolds same or opposite side
- In choices if see evidence --> fact, claim --> opinion

12

Be careful of extreme words - if it says CONTRADICT the argument

The statement must really undermine conclusion. If there's a perhaps, then author isn't totally disregarding conclusion.

Need to see that the author is directly attacking

13

Watch out for 1 wrong word

Choice may have correct except 1 word: budget shortfall vs recycling plan effect

14

4 steps for Role questions

1. ID ? - boldface --> role, 2 people in Q
2. Deconstruct arg - find C, P, X, +/-
3. State goal - know desired labels! (+/i, looking for C? P? A?
4. Wrong to right - beware of half right choices

15

4 steps for finding assumption questions

1. ID ? - "assume / assumption"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, think of assumptions
3. Goal - assumption must be true for concl
4. Wrong to right - use negation, negate assumption and see if it hurts concl - if you're stuck (time consuming though)
Beware of assumption with no tie to conclusion, irrelev comparison, reverse logic

16

Negating choices -
better than -->
Some of them liked it more -->

equal to or less than (don't forget equal)

None of them liked it more

17

Specific numbers in answer choices to be an assumption

Be wary of them, is that number absolutely true? If it can be another number, that assumption doesn't have to be true

18

Strengthen / weaken concl - beware of directionally say + or -, but

not concluding the same thing
If ex is employees lose confidence bc of co viability, talking about a competitor's raise is a negative, but doesn't have anything to do with co viability and losing confidence bc of it

19

4 steps for strengthen Qs

1. ID question - "strengthen, support, if true", fill in the blank "because, since"
2. Deconstruct - find conclusion, brainstorm assump
3. Goal - find new piece of info that supports arg
4. Wrong to right - beware of no tie to concl, weaken answers

20

Weaken answers can attack assumption

ex: employees lose confid in viability --> quit
weaken: competitor provides health ins so that's why they quit, not bc lose confid

21

Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion EXCEPT

5th one doesn't have to strengthen ,could also be neutral, does nothing. Label S, W, N - so you know to pick the S or N

Label Q as Wex

22

4 steps for weaken Q

1. ID Q - "weaken, undermine, if true"
2. Deconstruct - find concl, think of assump
3. Goal - weaken or make arg less valid, ARE THERE OTHER REASONS WHY
4. Wrong to right - beware of reverse logic (strengthen) or no tie to arg, overgeneralize concl and ignores 1 group

23

Watch out for which perspective you're proving, ex: contention by the gvt

Gvt's perspective - even if it says contention by, that just means the disagreement made by the gvt

24

CR questions - don't forget to read the....

QUESTION! ID the Q **

25

As vs like

As in front of clause
Like in front of noun, never clause

26

Common CR inference (draw conclusion) errors

Not relevant (IRV)

Info not provided in argument, can’t conclude. No evidence for a random claim (IDK)

1-2 wrong words

Test wth extremes, can this conclusion be possible with very little or a billion

Contradict what’s been given

27

Inference: Draw a conclusion Q - you have to

Find an answer that's actually true by what you're given. you're not making any actual new conclusions

28

CR: watch out for % vs amount. If they give you % and average, can't say

same thing will happen to amount. What if 1 point is 10 billion and everyone else is 10

Think of extremes in verbal too

29

During rc, look for main point, then for examples / details

Note if for or against main point

30

Aggravate v aggravating

Worsen

Irritating

31

Known as vs known to be

Named

Acknowledge as

32

Loss of vs loss in

No longer in possession

Decline in value

33

Mandate vs have a mandate

Command

Have authority from voters

34

Native of vs native to

Person from

Species originated in

35

Range of vs ranging

Variety of

Varying

36

Rate of vs rates for

Speed or frequency

Prices for

37

Rise vs raise

General increase

Bet or salary increase

38

Try to do vs try doing

Seek to accomplish

Experiment w

39

Ex steps

1. Find the point of the passage
2. Purpose of ea paragraph

40

Rc general question steps

Id question
Find support - look at your map for purpose q
Predict answer
Eliminate wrong to right

41

Coming cr errors

Too extreme with all, never
Out of scope, past what passage talks about
Not relevant, doesn’t answer q
Contradicts
One word off
Uses same words but diff meaning

42

Parallelism flags

Both phrases must be ||
- X as well as Y
- X but also Y
- X but Y
- X rather than Y

43

Comparison (more than)

Both phrases must be ||
more X than Y

44

Parallelism - words after

don't have to be identical
- WHO speak english and WHOSE parents don't
- IN the box AND ON the table (prepositions can vary)

45

Open parallel marker vs closed
Open: X but Y
Closed: not only X, but also Y

Open - check for ambiguity, need similar signal word

Closed - needs exact match

46

||- not X,

but rather Y (not X rather Y doesn't work)

47

||- not only X,

but also Y (can't use but also alone)

48

||- Between X

and Y

49

||- Consider X,

Y

50

||- in contrast to X,

Y

51

||- Distinguish X

from Y

52

||- Estimate X

to be Y

53

||- Mistake X

for Y

54

||- Think of X

as Y

55

||- View X

as Y

56

||- Whether X

or Y

57

|| Linking verbs:

Must be ||
this politician IS a step forward (politiican not parallel to step forward)
- appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, represent, resemble, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

58

Noun modifiers - which that who whose whom where when

Place as close to the noun

Don’t get tricked by possessive noun (incorrect)

59

Who whom which whose - when to use what

Who whom - people
Which - things
Whose - both

60

Where vs in which

Where - place, generally MUST be a PHYSICAL location
In which - condition, circumstance , arrangement

61

When vs in which

Both for periods of time

62

Adverbial modifier placement

More free
But need to make sure you know which verb it modifies

63

Which vs ing

Which modifies noun only never s clause

64

Many vs much

Many is countable much isn’t

65

Few vs little

Few is countable little isn’t

66

Fewer vs less

Fewer is countable less isn’t

10 items or fewer

67

Fewest vs least

Fewest is countable

68

Numerous vs great

Numerous is countable great isn’t

69

Number v amount

Number is countable

70

It’s numbers are greater than it more than

$20 less than or fewer than

Greater than

Less than, greater than

71

When you see comma (signal), look out for

Modifier issues (figure out what the phrase is referring to)

72

When you see -ly, it's a ____ and can modify ____

-ly is an adverb, can modify everything except noun

73

If you see phrase that starts with who, what, which, etc. and is parallel to another

the other phrase has to start with same who, what which, etc.

74

When you see modifiers and commas, check if they are

commas are only needed if they're essential (if noun is vague and you need to clarify then shouldn't be in comma)

75

SC Steps

1. Read for meaning
2. Look at answer choices - get hint for splits
If you can't figure out what, check the following
- Find core: Look for noun and verb - complete sent (structure), ELIMINATE prep phrases or other distractions
- Verb - is tense right? (every verb, and if they match tense)
- Modifier issues - where are commas / phrases.

76

that vs which - what's needed

, which needs comma
which only refers to nouns, not clause (RIGHT BEFORE IT, unless there's some prepositional sword OF Stevenson - still fine)

77

If you see "which" modify a phrase

** which is only used to modify noun, not an entire phrase

Phrase needs to be modified by a verb modifier, change to -ing

78

adverb modifies

adverbial modifier

everything but noun or pronoun
(-ly)

adverbs, verbs, adj, phrases, entire clauses - just no nouns
Ex:

79

adjective modifies

noun or pronoun only

80

When you see "which", "that", "who", "whose", "whom", "where", "when"

noun modifier, MUST modify noun

That is more complex - can signal other types

81

noun modifier

Modifies noun / pronoun only
Answers - who, what, which, where
Must be placed as close to noun as possible

Ex: A hardworker, Sue...
Ex: the road, which cut across

82

"who, whom" modifies

people

83

Less or fewer (dollars, gallons, money)

Unit nouns are not countable (1 money, 2 moneys?)
Less than 10 dollars, not fewer than 10 gallons
Less money not fewer money

84

The "number" of birds is xx than
Greater vs more

actual word "number", "numbers" goes with greater

Greater is not countable, greater likelihood, greater the chance

More is countable, More likely, studied more (hours)

85

"whose" modifies

people OR things (don't forget)
Ex: the town whose ...

86

"where" modifies xxx, but not xxx

where modifies place
but not situation, circumstance

87

"in which" can modify

age,
period of time (like "when")
Circumstance, situation

88

when you see "such" "that" BEWARE

Correct: so [adjective like awesome] that ....
Correct: history of planes was such that ....
INCORRECTl SO new SUCH THAT

89

"Yet" is used when

the 2nd phrase happens DESPITE the 1st phrase

90

Who's countable
Much vs many

many

91

Who's countable
More, most

Works with both countable and not countable nouns

92

Who's countable
Few vs little

Few

93

Who's countable
Enough vs all

Works with both countable and not countable

94

Who's countable
Fewer vs Less

Fewer
Ex: 10 items or fewer, not less

95

Who's countable
Least vs Fewest

Fewest

96

Who's countable
Number vs amount

Number

97

Who's countable
Great vs Numerous

Numberous

Ex: Numerous books
Great courage

98

present perfect (has/have) can't

appear in sentence twice, unless there's a different time period for the two

99

comma -ing is a

adverbial modifier

check if it modifies the main subject and verb (can't modify a noun)

also, check tense, the comma -ing takes on the main verb's tense so you have to check if it makes sense

** can modify both noun or phrase

100

In Sc, when you see alternating tense (did and having done)

Watch for incorrect tense
Past tense shouldn't go with present perfect (having done) if it's referring to something in the past

101

when you see "such" "that" BEWARE

Correct: so [adjective like awesome] that ....
Correct: history of planes was such that ....
INCORRECTl SO new SUCH THAT

102

when you see so new "for" + xxx

xx should be a person, not object (this is so new for a plane, meaning is incorrect)

103

turn to you for help TO BUY or IN BUYING

for help in buying

104

When you see "that" inserted, watch out for

change in meaning
watch for an object ("plan") with a human action - ex: plan can't suggest

105

trick for testing "from which"

switch it

the table from which she stole the food
she stole the food from the table (replace which )

106

the number of dogs IS or ARE

ARE, takes on the dogs

107

When you see prepositional phrases

eliminate them to get core, but make sure the subject verb makes sense!
Ex: proliferation (of computer games) was 1st developed - doesn't make sense, drop prolif

108

When you see semi colons or lots of commas, check for

comma splices, run ons

109

the number of which - which refers to

must refer to a noun stated before (can't be wolves' population if it's supposed to be "wolves")

110

when you see modifiers, check for

meaning - sometimes, it doesn't make sense ("when" means when A, B happens), but if A and B happen simultaneously, can't use "when"

111

when you see a noun modifier (starts with "who", "which", "that", "where", etc.)

look for the noun that it modifies (must be close)

112

seldom more than X BUT / AND Y

contrasting point so use "BUT"
seldom more than 2 ft tall BUT 200 lbs

113

has been found + _____

to be

114

If you're stuck between 2 choices and don't know about grammar, make sure to check

meaning of the sentences (does the noun of the modifier make sense)

115

CR - watch out for equations, when you see
- wages and output, think...

# of hours spent to build
R*T=D or Work

116

CR - when you see questions in choices, evaluate the arg

If yes / no, must destroy or support the arg (nothing weak)

117

CR - when they use analogy to support a concl, question if

analogy is applicable. godo place to test assumption, weaken / strengthen arg

118

if question has not more likely, you can sub

just as likely so it's eaiser to understand

119

Marc's 3 tricks / techniques for CR

1. Therefore test to find concl
2. Negation technique to test assumption (Find assumption Qs) --> ESP when you see a "none/no". Does negated choice destroy concl?
--> Weaken Q - negation should change from weaken (Q as is) to strengthen
3.. Plug in choices (if assumpion Q) to see if it makes sense with concl

120

CR - bold face Qs, first

read everything before labeling bold

121

Marc's RC tecninque steps

1. Read psg without notes
2. Note 1st and last sent, transition words
3. 1 word / phrase summary of basic purpose and pharagraph

122

premises / background can be facts, facts can support

the conclusion (even if there's no opinion)

123

CR - strengthen arg questions, pay attn to

elements in concl, need to address all elements (all 3 in a list, both cause and effect)

124

CR - weaken Q, when they use analogy as evidence, watch out for

analogy is similar to the situation (weaken it by saying they're not the same situations)

125

making them DECREASE in size - what type of word is this?

used as a verb

the coach got mad, making the players RUN across the block

126

"being" in a sentence - check if it's wrong

most of the time, can be wrong

127

For CR

1. go through errors you know are for sure wrong (don't identify the one that you think is right) --> especially with CR
2. then pick the one that you' think is right

128

Marc's RC tecninque steps

1. Read psg without notes
2. Note 1st and last sent, transition words
3. 1 word / phrase summary of basic purpose and pharagraph

129

CR - fill in blank could be what question type

strengthen arg (esp if it's after "since"

130

CR - strengthen arg questions, pay attn to

elements in concl, need to address all elements (all 3 in a list, both cause and effect)

131

CR - weaken Q, when they use analogy as evidence, watch out for

analogy is similar to the situation (weaken it by saying they're not the same situations)

132

CR - factors related to questions about traffic and cars driving

* miles driven
* # cars
* highway vs local routes
* age of drivers

133

CR - eval the discrep

Think does this exacerbate the discrep or lessen? Trap is when it exacerbates

134

From which is Ok or not?

From which is fine
Ex: the farm from which the pig came --> the pig came from the farm

135

goal of vs goal to doing

goal of doing this

136

SC - Parallelism

1. Look for AND markers
2. Check all phrases being parallel

137

SC - Modifiers

1. Find core first
2. Check modified subject

138

SC - Comparison

1. Look for AND, markers
2. Find all comparisons and check if parallel

139

when you see more slowly, vs slower

more slowly is an adv, modifies a verb
slower is primarily an adj (when it comes to ||, be strict about more slowly vs slower)

140

SC - parallelism, when you see "both"..."and", check

words to the right being compared

141

comma -ing VS. -ing

comma -ing becomes adverbial modifier

-ing with no comma modifies a noun next to it