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Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (14):
0

What are the 4 functions of the vertebral column?

1. Stiffens the body axis, contributes to maintenance of posture
2. Facilitates locomotion by flexion, extension and torsion
3. Encloses and protects the spinal cord and accessory structures within the central canal
4. Protects the soft structures of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis

1

What are the names of the first and second cervical vertebrae?

Atlas and axis

2

What does the atlanto-occipital joint allow?
(Between atlas and occipital condyles of skull)

Up and down movement of head

3

Which ligament supports the weight of the head in the dog and horse? Where does it insert?

Nuchal ligament
Inserts onto spine of axis

4

Which ligament runs from the neck of the rib to the transverse process of the vertebra?

Costotransverse ligament

5

Which ligament runs from the head of the left rib to the head of the right rib through the intervertebral foramen, crossing the floor of the vertebral canal?

Intercapital ligament

6

What are the 2 types of intervertebral disc herniation?

Hansen type 1= annulus ruptures, extruding the gelatinous centre into the spinal canal
Hansen type 2=annulus thickens and compresses the spinal cord (Wobbler's)

7

What is the function of the intervertebral discs?

Shock absorber

8

What is distinctive about C7?

No transverse foramen

9

What is carried in the transverse foramina of vertebrae?

Vertebral vessels and the vertebral nerve/plexus of sympathetic nerve fibres

10

The vertebral artery is a branch of which artery?

Subclavian

11

What is different about the lumbar vertebrae in the horse compared to other species?
Why does this difference occur?

Very long transverse processes
Help support the large GI tract

12

When does the vertebral canal disappear? (Which vertebrae?)

After Cy5-7

13

What are the 3 ligament types that are present between the atlas and axis?

Alar ligaments and apical ligament of dens- connect the sides of the dens (axis) to the basioccipital bone (side to side head movement)
Transverse ligament of atlas-holds the dens against the fovea dentis