Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (45):
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
How many sacral vertebrae are there?
How many coccygeal vertebrae are there?
4 (or 1)
Is the vertebral body anterior or posterior?
What makes up the vertebral arch?
Pedicle, lamina, superior & inferior articular processes, spinous process, transverse processes
What is a pedicle
Attaches transverse process to vertebral body
What is a lamina
Attaches transverse process to spinous process
What are the distinctive features of typical cervical vertebrae?
Triangular vertebral foramen
Bifid spinous process
What passes through transverse foramina?
What are the distinctive features of C7 vertebra?
Very long spinous process, very small (sometimes absent) transverse foramina
What is C1 vertebra also known as?
What is C2 vertebra also known as?
Which cervical vertebrae are atypical?
C1 and C2
What are the distinctive features of C1 vertebra?
No spinous process
No vertebral body
Anterior and posterior vertebral arches
Lateral tubercle for transverse ligament
What is the distinctive feature of C2 vertebra?
Has dens/odontoid process
What holds dens in place?
Transverse ligament of C1 vertebra
What are the distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae?
Heart shaped vertebral body
Costal demi-facets on each side of vertebral body
Costal facets on end of transverse processes
Long, inferiorly slanting spinous process
How do thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs?
Head of rib articulates with inferior costal demi-facet of vertebra above and superior costal demi-facet of corresponding vertebra.
Costal facets on transverse processes articulate with tubercle of corresponding rib
What are the distinctive features of lumbar vertebrae?
Large kidney-shaped vertebral bodies
Triangular vertebral foramen
Short spinous process
Shorter transverse processes
Superior articular facets face medially
Inferior articular facets face laterally
What is an ala?
Large triangular surface either side of sacrum, continuous with iliac fossa
Where do the sacral spinal nerves leave?
Anterior and posterior sacral foramina
What are the coccygeal cornua?
Two superior protrusions that articulate with sacrum
What are the facet/zygapophyseal joints between?
Superior and inferior articular processes
What makes up the intervertebral discs?
Annulus fibrosis - outer ring
Nucleus pulposus - inner ball
What are the attachments and function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?
Occipital bone and C1 to sacrum
Resists hyperextension of vertebral column
What are the attachments and function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?
C2 to sacrum
Prevents hyperflexion of vertebral column
What are the attachments and function of the ligamentum flavum?
Lamina of adjacent vertebrae
Prevents hyperflexion and preserves upright posture
What are the attachments and function of the ligamentum nuchae?
External occipital protuberance to spinous process of C7
What are the attachments and function of the interspinous ligaments?
Length of spinous process to length of adjacent spinous process
What are the attachments of supraspinous ligaments?
Spinous process to spinous process
What are the attachments of intertransverse ligaments?
Transverse process to transverse process
What are the curvatures of the spine?
Cervical and lumbar - lordosis
Thoracic and sacral - kyphosis
What is a slipped disc?
Herniation of nucleus pulposus (usually L4/L5 or L5/S1)
What vertebral level does spinal cord end in adults?
What vertebral level does the spinal cord end in newborns?
What does the epidural space contain?
Lymphatics, spinal nerve roots, connective tissue, small arteries, venous plexuses
Where do spinal arteries originate?
What does the anterior spinal artery supply?
Pia mater, anterior 2/3 of spinal cord, cauda equina
What do the two posterior spinal arteries supply?
Posterior 1/3 of spinal cord
What arteries reinforce the spinal arteries?
Radicular branches of intercostal and lumbar arteries
Are the cervical spinal nerves above or below their corresponding vertebra?
Are the thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves above or below their corresponding vertebra?