Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Vertebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (45):
1

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

2

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

3

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

4

How many sacral vertebrae are there?

5

5

How many coccygeal vertebrae are there?

4 (or 1)

6

Is the vertebral body anterior or posterior?

Anterior

7

What makes up the vertebral arch?

Pedicle, lamina, superior & inferior articular processes, spinous process, transverse processes

8

What is a pedicle

Attaches transverse process to vertebral body

9

What is a lamina

Attaches transverse process to spinous process

10

What are the distinctive features of typical cervical vertebrae?

Triangular vertebral foramen
Bifid spinous process
Transverse foramina

11

What passes through transverse foramina?

Vertebral arteries

12

What are the distinctive features of C7 vertebra?

Very long spinous process, very small (sometimes absent) transverse foramina

13

What is C1 vertebra also known as?

Atlas

14

What is C2 vertebra also known as?

Axis

15

Which cervical vertebrae are atypical?

C1 and C2

16

What are the distinctive features of C1 vertebra?

No spinous process
No vertebral body
Anterior and posterior vertebral arches
Lateral tubercle for transverse ligament

17

What is the distinctive feature of C2 vertebra?

Has dens/odontoid process

18

What holds dens in place?

Transverse ligament of C1 vertebra

19

What are the distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae?

Heart shaped vertebral body
Costal demi-facets on each side of vertebral body
Costal facets on end of transverse processes
Long, inferiorly slanting spinous process

20

How do thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs?

Head of rib articulates with inferior costal demi-facet of vertebra above and superior costal demi-facet of corresponding vertebra.
Costal facets on transverse processes articulate with tubercle of corresponding rib

21

What are the distinctive features of lumbar vertebrae?

Large kidney-shaped vertebral bodies
Triangular vertebral foramen
Short spinous process
Shorter transverse processes
Superior articular facets face medially
Inferior articular facets face laterally

22

What is an ala?

Large triangular surface either side of sacrum, continuous with iliac fossa

23

Where do the sacral spinal nerves leave?

Anterior and posterior sacral foramina

24

What are the coccygeal cornua?

Two superior protrusions that articulate with sacrum

25

What are the facet/zygapophyseal joints between?

Superior and inferior articular processes

26

What makes up the intervertebral discs?

Annulus fibrosis - outer ring
Nucleus pulposus - inner ball

27

What are the attachments and function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

Occipital bone and C1 to sacrum
Resists hyperextension of vertebral column

28

What are the attachments and function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

C2 to sacrum
Prevents hyperflexion of vertebral column

29

What are the attachments and function of the ligamentum flavum?

Lamina of adjacent vertebrae
Prevents hyperflexion and preserves upright posture

30

What are the attachments and function of the ligamentum nuchae?

External occipital protuberance to spinous process of C7
Prevents hyperflexion

31

What are the attachments and function of the interspinous ligaments?

Length of spinous process to length of adjacent spinous process
Prevents hyperflexion

32

What are the attachments of supraspinous ligaments?

Spinous process to spinous process

33

What are the attachments of intertransverse ligaments?

Transverse process to transverse process

34

What are the curvatures of the spine?

Cervical and lumbar - lordosis
Thoracic and sacral - kyphosis

35

What is a slipped disc?

Herniation of nucleus pulposus (usually L4/L5 or L5/S1)

36

What vertebral level does spinal cord end in adults?

L1/L2

37

What vertebral level does the spinal cord end in newborns?

L3

38

What does the epidural space contain?

Lymphatics, spinal nerve roots, connective tissue, small arteries, venous plexuses

39

Where do spinal arteries originate?

Vertebral arteries

40

What does the anterior spinal artery supply?

Pia mater, anterior 2/3 of spinal cord, cauda equina

41

What do the two posterior spinal arteries supply?

Posterior 1/3 of spinal cord

42

What arteries reinforce the spinal arteries?

Radicular branches of intercostal and lumbar arteries

43

Are the cervical spinal nerves above or below their corresponding vertebra?

Above

44

Are the thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves above or below their corresponding vertebra?

Below

45

What is the conus medullaris?

Termination of spinal cord