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Flashcards in VI - Neoplasia Deck (72)
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1
Q

This term literally means “new growth”.

A

Neoplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

2
Q

An abnormal mass of tissue the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of stimuli which evoked the change.

A

Neoplasm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

3
Q

Study of tumors.

A

Oncology(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

4
Q

Benign or malignant?Localized

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

5
Q

Benign or malignant?Amenable to surgical removal

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

6
Q

Benign or malignant?Invades and destroys adjacent tissues.

A

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

7
Q

What are the two basic components of tumors?

A

Parenchyma and Stroma(TOPNOTCH)

8
Q

Benign or malignant?Metastasis

A

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

9
Q

This component of tumors largely determines its biologic behavior.

A

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

10
Q

This component of tumors determines the name of the growth.

A

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

11
Q

This component of tumors is crucial to the growth of neoplasms since it carries the blood supply and provides support to the growth of cells.

A

Stroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

12
Q

Benign or malignant?Fibroma

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

13
Q

Benign or malignant?Chondroma

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

14
Q

Benign or malignant?Adenoma

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

15
Q

Benign or malignant?Hepatoma

A

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

16
Q

Benign or malignant?Papilloma

A

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

17
Q

Malignant neoplasms arising in mesenchymal tissue or its derivatives.

A

Sarcomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

18
Q

Benign tumor arising in fibrous tissue is called?

A

Fibroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

19
Q

A benign cartilagenous tumor is called?

A

Chondroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

20
Q

This is a benign epithelial neoplasm which produces glandular patterns or neoplasms derived from glands but not necessarily exhibit glandular patterns

A

Adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

21
Q

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

A

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

22
Q

A mass that projects above a mucosal surface to form a macroscopically visible structure.

A

Polyps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

23
Q

A cancer of fibrous tissue origin.

A

Fibrosarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

24
Q

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin.

A

Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

25
Q

Carcinoma of squamous cell origin.

A

Squamous cell carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)

26
Q

Carcinoma of squamous cell origin.

A

Squamous cell carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

27
Q

Benign or malignant?Lymphoma

A

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

28
Q

Benign or malignant?Seminoma

A

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

29
Q

The extent to which neoplastic cells resemble their normal forebears morphologically and functionally.

A

Differentiation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

30
Q

This is considered a hallmark of malignancy, which literally means “to form backward”.

A

Anaplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

31
Q

These cells display marked pleomorphism, nuclei are variable and bizzare in size and shape. Chromatin is course and clumped. Mitoses are often numerous and distinctly atypical.

A

Anaplastic cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

32
Q

This term is defined by disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation of cells, described as a loss in uniformity of individual cells and in their architectural orientation.

A

Dysplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

33
Q

Defined as dysplactic changes which involve the entire thickness of the epithelium.

A

Carcinoma -in - situ(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

34
Q

True or false?Dysplasia always progress to cancer.

A

False(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

35
Q

True or false?Lack of capsule in a neoplastic growth indicates malignancy.

A

FalseSome benign tumors are not encapsulated.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

36
Q

This term describes the development of secondary implants discontinuous with the primary tumor, in remote tissues.

A

Metastasis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

37
Q

Next to metastasis, this is the most reliable feature that distinguishes malignant from benign tumors.

A

Local invasiveness(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

38
Q

Methods of dissemination of malignant neoplasms? (3)

A

SeedingLymphatic spreadHematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

39
Q

This is the mode of dissemination of cancers of the ovary and CNS.

A

Spread by seeding(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

40
Q

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of carcinomas.

A

Lymphatic spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

41
Q

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of sarcomas.

A

Hematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

42
Q

It is defined as the first lymph node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from a primary tumor.

A

Sentinel lymph node(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

43
Q

What are the most common sites of metastasis involved in hematogenous dissemination of cancer?

A

Liver and lungs(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.181

44
Q

This substance is a byproduct of metal smelting, a component of alloys, electrical and semiconductor devices which could cause cancer of the lungs and skin and hemangiosarcomas.

A

Arsenic and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

45
Q

This substance was formerly used for fire-resistant textiles and construction materials which could cause lung cancer and more prominently malignant mesothelioma

A

Asbestos(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

46
Q

This substance is commonly used as a solvent in paint, rubber, dry cleaning, adhesives and detergents which could cause leukemias and Hodgkin lymphoma.

A

Benzene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

47
Q

This substance is used as hardener for metal alloys used in aerospace applications and nuclear reactors which is commonly associated with cancer of the lung.

A

Beryllium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

48
Q

This substance is used in solders, batteries and metal alloys commonly associated with cancers of the prostate.

A

Cadmium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

49
Q

This substance is a refrigerant and used as adhesive for plastics, which causes hepatic angiosarcoma.

A

Vinyl chloride(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

50
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRB gene :__________

A

Retinoblastoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

51
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromep53 : ______________

A

Li Fraumeni Syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

52
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Familial Adenomatous Polyposis / Colon CA

A

APC Gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

53
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast on Ovarian Tumors

A

BRCA 1 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

54
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast Cancer only

A

BRCA 2 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

55
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRET gene : _________

A

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 and 2(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

56
Q

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Colon cancer

A

kras gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

57
Q

Normal cellular genes whose products promote cell proliferation.

A

Proto-oncogenes(TOPNOTCH)

58
Q

Normal cellular genes whose products promote cell proliferation.

A

Proto-oncogenes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.188

59
Q

It is a naturally occurring carcinogenic agent produced by some strains of Aspergillus, a mold that grows on improperly stored grains and nuts.

A

Aflatoxin B(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

60
Q

There is a strong correlation between the dietary level of Aflatoxin and what type of cancer?

A

Hepatocellular Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

61
Q

These substances require metabolic conversion to be carcinogenic.

A

Indirect - acting carcinogens(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

62
Q

These substances stimulate proliferation of the mutated cells.

A

Promoters(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

63
Q

How does ionizing radiation cause cancer?

A

Through chromosome breakage, translocations and point mutations leading to genetic damage and carcinogenesis.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

64
Q

What is the mechanism of action of UV rays in the formation of neoplastic cells?

A

UV rays induce formation of pyrimidine dimers within DNA leading to mutations.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

65
Q

This is the only retrovirus that has been demonstrated to cause cancer in humans.

A

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus -1 (HTLV-1)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.211

66
Q

HPV strains which has been implicated in the genesis of cervical and anorectal cancer.

A

HPV 16, 18(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

67
Q

EBV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the following cancers except:A. Burkitt lymphomaB. Lymphoma in HIV patientsC. Nasopharyngeal carcinomaD. Hodgkin lymphomaE. None of the above

A

E. none of the above(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

68
Q

Which hepatitis virus leads to hepatocellular carcinoma?

A

HBV, HCV(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

69
Q

This is the first bacterium to be classified as a carcinogen.

A

Helicobacter pylori(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

70
Q

What type of cancer can be caused by H.pylori?

A

Gastric adenocarcinoma Gastric MALT lymphomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.214

71
Q

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

A

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)

72
Q

Tumor antigens are presented on the cell surface by MHC Class I molecules to which type of T lymphocytes?

A

CD8+ T lymphocytes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.215