VI - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Endocrine Drugs Preview

Pathology PLE 2015 > VI - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Endocrine Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in VI - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Endocrine Drugs Deck (112):
1

Recombinant Growth hormone

Somatropin (TOPNOTCH)

2

Increases release of IGF-1 in the liver and carilage, stimulates skeletal muscle growth, amino acid transport, protein synthesis and cell proliferation

Somatropin (TOPNOTCH)

3

Recombinant IGF-1

Mecasermin (TOPNOTCH)

4

Somatostatin analog

Octreotide, Lanreotide (TOPNOTCH)

5

suppresses the release of growth hormones, glucagon, insulin, gastrin, IGF-1, serotonin and gastrointestinal peptides

Octreotide, Lanreotide (TOPNOTCH)

6

For Acromegaly, pituitary adenoma, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, variceal bleeding

Octreotide, Lanreotide (TOPNOTCH)

7

GH receptor antagonist ; For acromegaly

Pegvisomant (TOPNOTCH)

8

Gonadotropin analog (FSH analog) ; For Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, infertility due to hypogonadism in men

Follitropin alfa, Follitropin beta, Urofollitropin (TOPNOTCH)

9

Gonadotropin analog (LH analog)

For Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (ovulation induction), hypogonadotripic hypogonadism (TOPNOTCH)

10

SE: Headache, depression, edema, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, multiple pregnancies in women, gynecomastia in men

FHS and LH analogs (TOPNOTCH)

11

GnRH analog

Leuprolide, Gonadorelin, Goserelin, Histrelin, Nafarelin, Triptorelin (TOPNOTCH)

12

For Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, endometriosis, myoma uteri, precocious puberty, postate CA

Leuprolide, Gonadorelin, Goserelin, Histrelin, Nafarelin, Triptorelin (TOPNOTCH)

13

there is exacerbation of symptoms in males with prostate CA and children with precocious puberty during the first few weeks of therapy

GnRH analog (TOPNOTCH)

14

For GnRH analogs: increased LH and FSH secretion with ________ administration , reduced LH and FSH secretion with ________ administration

intermittent ; prolonged continuous (TOPNOTCH)

15

GnRH antagonist

Ganirelix, Cetrorelix, Degarelix (TOPNOTCH)

16

For Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (prevents premature LH surge), advanced prostate CA

Ganirelix, Cetrorelix, Degarelix (TOPNOTCH)

17

Does NOT cause tumor flare-up whe used for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

Ganirelix, Cetrorelix, Degarelix (TOPNOTCH)

18

_____ is used for prostate CA while _____ prevent LH surge in controlled ovulation

Degarelix ; Ganirelix (TOPNOTCH)

19

Dopamine agonist, partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors in brain ; For Hyperprolactinemia, Pituitary adenoma, acromegaly, Parkinson's disease

Bromocriptine, Carbegoline (TOPNOTCH)

20

Activates oxytocin receptors stimulates uterine contraction and labor, stimulates mammary glands, lactation and milk let-down

Oxytocin (TOPNOTCH)

21

For Labor induction, labor augmentation, control of uterine hemorrhage post-delivery

Oxytocin (TOPNOTCH)

22

oxytocin antagonist used in preterm labor

ATOSIBAN (TOPNOTCH)

23

ADH agonist, Vasopressin V2 receptor agonist

Desmopressin (TOPNOTCH)

24

For Central DI, Hemphilia A, von Willebrand's disease, Variceal bleeding, primary nocturnal seizures

Desmopressin (TOPNOTCH)

25

SE: Fetal distress, placental abruption, uterine rupture, fluid retention, hyponatremia, heart failure, seizures, hypotension

Oxytocin (TOPNOTCH)

26

ADH antagonist, Antagonist at V1a and V2 receptors

Conivaptan, Tolvaptan (TOPNOTCH)

27

_____ may occur with rapid correction of hyponatremia

Central pontine myelinolysis (TOPNOTCH)

28

Which is more selective for V2 receptors, Conivaptan or Tolvaptan?

tolvaptan (TOPNOTCH)

29

Thryoid hormone ; For Hypothyroidism, myxedema coma

Levothyroxine (T4), Liothyronine (T3) (TOPNOTCH)

30

T or F: Liothyronine has a faster onset but shorter half-life

TRUE (TOPNOTCH)

31

Inhibits thyroid peroxidase reactions, blocks iodine organification, inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 into T3

Propylthiouracil (PTU) (TOPNOTCH)

32

Drug of choice for pregnant hyperthyroid patients

Propylthiouracil (PTU) (TOPNOTCH)

33

Inhibits thyroid peroxidase reactions, blocks iodine organification

Methimazole, Carbimazole (TOPNOTCH)

34

Inhibit iodine organification and hormone release leading to reduced size and vascularity of thyroid gland

Lugol Solution (Iodine in Potssium Iodide), Potassium Iodide (TOPNOTCH)

35

onset is more rapid (2-7 days) but effect is transient ; Should not be used alone (escape in 2-8 weeks); prevents radiation induced thryoid damage; prenatal exposure causes fetal goiter

Lugol Solution (Iodine in Potssium Iodide), Potassium Iodide (TOPNOTCH)

36

Beta blocker control HR and other cardiac abnormalities of severe thyrotoxicosis, slows pacemaker activity; inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 into T3

Propranolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol (TOPNOTCH)

37

_____ may be used to treat thyrotoxicosis-related arrhythmias

Esmolol (TOPNOTCH)

38

Iodide, emits beta rays causing destruction of thyroid parenchyma

Radioactive Iodine (TOPNOTCH)

39

For hyperthyroidism, permanent cure of thyrotoxicosis without surgery and no effect on other tissues

Radioactive Iodine (TOPNOTCH)

40

Preferred treatment for most patients due to ease of administration, effectiveness, low expense and absence of pain; contraindicated in pregnant women or nursing mothers

Radioactive Iodine (TOPNOTCH)

41

Low Potency Glucocorticoid (GC)

Desonide (TOPNOTCH)

42

Medium Potency GC

Fluticasone, Mometasone (TOPNOTCH)

43

High Potency GC

Desoximetasone, Clobetasol (TOPNOTCH)

44

Effects: stimulate gluconeogenesis, increased fat deposition, protein catabolism, inhibit cell-mediated immunologic functions, lymphotoxic, increased neutrophils, decreased lymphocytes, eosinpphils, basophils and monocytes, inhibit leukocyte migration, inhibit PLA2

Glucocorticoids (TOPNOTCH)

45

_____ is the active metabolite of prednisone

prednisolone (TOPNOTCH)

46

SE: Adrenal suppression, growth inhibition, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, salt retention, glucose intolerance, behavioral changes (psychosis)

Glucocorticoids (TOPNOTCH)

47

For supressession of inflammation and immune response, hematopoeitic cancers, transplant rejection, collagen and rheumatic disease, lung maturation in preterm labor

Glucocorticoids (TOPNOTCH)

48

strong agonist of mineralocorticoid receptors and moderate activation of glucorticoid receptors

Mineralocorticoid (TOPNOTCH)

49

Increases Na reabsorption, K and H excretion ; For Chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease), Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal replacement therapy post-adrenalectomy

Mineralocorticoid (TOPNOTCH)

50

Mineralocorticoid

Fludrocortisone, Deoxycorticosterone (TOPNOTCH)

51

Additive hypokalemia with loop diurectics and thiazides

Fludrocortisone, Deoxycorticosterone (TOPNOTCH)

52

Glucorticoid synthesis inhibitor, inhibits desmolase activity, blocking conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone

Aminoglutethimide (TOPNOTCH)

53

Glucorticoid synthesis inhibitor, inhibits cholesterol side chain cleavage, cytochrome P450 enzymes and other enzymes necessary for synthesis of all steroids

Ketoconazole (TOPNOTCH)

54

Ketoconazole is CYP450 inhibitor or inducer?

Inhibitor (TOPNOTCH)

55

Glucorticoid synthesis inhibitor, selective inhibitor of steroid-11 hydroxylation

Metyrapone (TOPNOTCH)

56

DOC for pregnant patients with Cushing's syndrome

Metyrapone (TOPNOTCH)

57

competitive inhibitor at the GC receptor as well as progesterone receptor ; For Cushing's syndrome

Mifepristone (RU486) (TOPNOTCH)

58

also used as an approved abortifacient for medical abortion (usually together with misoprostol)

Mifepristone (RU486) (TOPNOTCH)

59

Activates etrogen receptors, leads to changes in rates of trasncription of estrogen-regulated genes

Estrogens: Ethinyl Estradiol, Mestranol, Estradiol cypionate, Premarin (TOPNOTCH)

60

Synthetic estrogen (nonsteroid); activates estrogen receptors; leads to changes in rates of transcription of estrogen-regulated genes ; For Atrophic vaginitis, hormone replacement therapy, prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes, metastatic prostate CA

Diethylstilbestrol (TOPNOTCH)

61

associated with Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, clear cell vaginal adenocarcinoma in daughters of women who used this drug

Diethylstilbestrol (TOPNOTCH)

62

activates progesterone receptors, change rates of transcription of progesterone-regulated genes ; For Hormone replacement therapy, contraception, assisted reproduction, anovulation induction

Progestins: Norgestrel, Medroxyprogesterone, Norethindrone, Norgestimate, Desogestrel,Megestrol (TOPNOTCH)

63

IM depot preparation

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (TOPNOTCH)

64

Must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse

Levonorgestrel (TOPNOTCH)

65

Estrogen antagonist actions in breast tissue and CNS, Estrogen agonist effects in uterus, liver and bone

Tamoxifen, Torimefene (TOPNOTCH)

66

Estrogen antagonist actions in breast tissue, uterus, and CNS, Estrogen agonist effects in liver and bone

Raloxifene (TOPNOTCH)

67

Partial agonist in pituitary, reduces negative feedback by estradiol, increases FSH and LH output, For Induction of ovulation

Clomiphene (TOPNOTCH)

68

Reduces estrogen synthesisby inhibiting aromatase ; For breast CA, precocious puberty

Anastrozole, Letrozole, Exemestane (TOPNOTCH)

69

Ovarian inhibitor, weak cytochrome P450 inhibitor and partial agonist of progestin and androgen receptors ; For Endometriosis, Fibrocystic disease, Hemophilia, Angioneurotic edema

Danazol (TOPNOTCH)

70

Activates androgen receptors, promotes development of male characteristics, increases body muscle bulk and RBC production

Androgens: Testosterone, Fluoxymesterone, Methyltestosterone (TOPNOTCH)

71

Effects: induces secretory changes in the endometrium, stabilize the endometrium, affect carbohydrate metabolism and stimulate deposition of fat, high doses suppress FSH and LH secretion

progesterone (TOPNOTCH)

72

Effects: secondary sexual characteristics, fertility and libido, male pattern baldness, increases muscle mass, increased RBC production, decreased urea nitrogen excretion

Androgens: Testosterone, Fluoxymesterone, Methyltestosterone (TOPNOTCH)

73

anabolic steroids

Oxandrolone, Stanozolol, Nandrolone (TOPNOTCH)

74

Competitive antagonist at androgen receptor ; For Prostate CA, surgical castration

Flutamide, Bicalutamide, Nilutamide (TOPNOTCH)

75

Antagonist at androgen receptor. Marked progestational effect that suppresses the feedback enhancement of LH and FSH

Cyproterone (TOPNOTCH)

76

Androgen synthesis inhibitor, inhibits 5a reducase enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone ; For BPH, Male pattern baldness. Hirsutism

Finasteride, Dutasteride (TOPNOTCH)

77

Activates a Tyrosine Kinase typer of receptorsleading to a reducting of circulating glucose: promotes glucose transport and oxidation; glycogen, lipid, protein synthesis and regulation of gene expression

Insulin (TOPNOTCH)

78

Rapid Acting Insulin

Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine (TOPNOTCH)

79

Short Acting Insulin

Regular Insulin (TOPNOTCH)

80

Intermediate Acting Insulin

NPH, Lente (TOPNOTCH)

81

Long Acting Insulin

Detemir, Glargine, Ultralente, Lantus (TOPNOTCH)

82

peakless insulins

Long Acting Insulin (TOPNOTCH)

83

acts as an insulin secretagogue, increases insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells by closing ATP sensitive K+ channels leading to depolarization of the B cell

Sulfonylureas (TOPNOTCH)

84

2nd generation sulfonylurea

Glipizide, Glibenclamide, Glimepiride, Gliclazide, Glyburide (TOPNOTCH)

85

1st generation sulfonylurea

Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide (TOPNOTCH)

86

T or F: 1st gen SUs have less hypoglycemia than 2nd gen

FALSE (TOPNOTCH)

87

Insulin Secretagogue, similar to sulfonylureas with some overlap in binding sites, reduces circulating glucose, increases glycogen, fat and protein formation and gene regulation

Meglitinides (TOPNOTCH)

88

Meglitinides

Repaglinide, Nateglinide (TOPNOTCH)

89

Least hypoglycemia among OHAs

Meglitinides (TOPNOTCH)

90

Reduced hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis with decreased endogenous glucose production, activates AMP-stimulated protein kinase leading to inhibition of gluconeogenesis

Biguanides (TOPNOTCH)

91

Biguanides

Metformin (TOPNOTCH)

92

DOC for obese diabetics

Metformin (TOPNOTCH)

93

Inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidases , reduces conversion of starch and disacchardies to monosaccharidea, reduces post prandial hyperglycemia

Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors (TOPNOTCH)

94

Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors

Acarbose, Miglitol (TOPNOTCH)

95

Regulates gene expression by binding to PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha which increases tissue sensitivity, increases glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue, inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis, effects on lipid metabolism and distribution of body fat, control of fasting and postprandial glucose, decreased risk of DM in high-risk patients

Thiazolidinediones (TOPNOTCH)

96

Thiazolidinediones

Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone (TOPNOTCH)

97

binds to PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha

Pioglitazone (TOPNOTCH)

98

binds to PPAR-gamma ONLY

Rosiglitazone (TOPNOTCH)

99

SE: Fluid retention, weight gain, congestive heart failure, fractures esp in women, cardiovascular events, hepatotoxicity, macular edema, dyslipidemia, increased risk of MI

Thiazolidinediones (TOPNOTCH)

100

Analog of GLP-1, Binds to GLP-1 receptors which leads to reducetion of post-meal glucose excursions, increases glucose-mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying time, produces satiety

Exenatide (TOPNOTCH)

101

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors, blocks degradation of GLP-1, raises circulating GLP-1 levels, reduces post-meal glucose excursions, increases glucose mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying time, decreases appetite

Sitagliptin, Linagliptin (TOPNOTCH)

102

Analog of amylin, Binds to amylin receptors, reduce post-meal glucose excursions, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying, decreases appetite

Pramlintide (TOPNOTCH)

103

Bile acid binder, lowers glucose through unknown mechanisms

Colesevelam hydrochloride (TOPNOTCH)

104

INACTIVE Vitamin D

Cholecalciferol, Ergocalciferol (TOPNOTCH)

105

ACTIVE Vitamin D

Calcitriol, Doxercalciferol, Paricalcitol, Calcipotriene (TOPNOTCH)

106

Suppress the activity of osteoclasts in part via inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthesis, inhibit resorption and formation of bone by acting on the basic hydroxyapatite crystal structure

Bisphosphonates (TOPNOTCH)

107

Bisphosphonates

Alendronate, Risedronate, Ibandronate, Pamidronate, Zoledronate, Etidronate, Tiludronate, Zoledronic acid (TOPNOTCH)

108

Recombinant PTH, Acts via cognate G protein coupled receptors, stimulates bone formation when given in low intermittent doses

Teriparatide (TOPNOTCH)

109

Acts via cognate G protein coupled receptors; suppresses bone resorption ; For Paget's disease of the bone, hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, tumor marker for thyroid CA

Calcitonin (TOPNOTCH)

110

Interacts selectively with estrogen receptors, inhibits PTH-stimulated bone resorption without stimulating breast or endometrial hyperplasia, delay bone loss in post-menopausal women

Raloxifene (TOPNOTCH)

111

Monoclonal antibody, binds to RANKL and prevents it from stimulating osteoclast differentiation and function, blocks bone resorption

Denosumab (TOPNOTCH)

112

Activates the calcium sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland, inhibits PTH secretion

Calcium Receptor Antagonist: Cinacalcet (TOPNOTCH)