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Flashcards in violence and injury Deck (17)
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1

what is an njury?

Body damage resulting from acute exposure to excessive amounts of thermal, mechanical (whether kinetic or potential), electrical, or chemical energy or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen

2

2 broad of injuries

Intentional
Intent to commit harm, either to oneself or someone else

Unintentional
Without direct intent to commit harm, even if gross negligence is involved

3

Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse
Physiological effects
complex cultural beliefs about and meanings given to the relationship between alcohol and violent, including sexually violent, behavior
Youth homicide

4

Drug abuse

Drug use
intimately connected with youth violence and homicide, most directly because the trade in drugs in many settings is associated with violence and turf wars between dealing gangs
men who have raped are more likely to use drugs
The great majority of the drug use reported was marijuana use
Drug use was associated with having ever engaged in multiple perpetrator rape (sometimes referred to as gang rape)

5

Tendency to use violence

The use of interpersonal violence in one context is closely related to its use in others
Rape of non-partners has been found to be more common among men who are physically violent towards partners
It seems likely that a system of patriarchy and gender hierarchy that legitimates the use of physical violence by men to assert dominance in a relationship and 'correct' behavior of wives and girlfriends would also find expression in sexual violence, as well as other forms of violence, such as verbal violence

6

Personality related to violence

Personality disorders of offenders
Cluster A, Cluster B and antisocial personality disorders
Schizoid personality features
Avoidant features
Both of these interfere with the development of normal peer relationships, including intimate relationships with women, and are more prevalent among sex offenders, particularly against children
Men who sexually molest children are socially and emotionally immature, have poor social skills, low levels of self-esteem, poor impulse control, and more signs of psychotic thinking

7

Psychopathy

a constellation of personality traits and socially deviant behaviours, spanning affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits

8

Characteristics of psychopathy

include egocentricity, lack of remorse and empathy, pathological lying, manipulativeness, and the persistent violation of social norms

9

Psychopaths

Psychopaths have been described as having an inability to connect sexual behaviour with emotional feelings, such as warmth and tenderness, and a hedonistically orientated lack of impulse control and are thus more likely to be sexually as well as physically violent

10

Four key dimensions to the interface between gender inequity, violence and HIV

1.Direct infection through rape
2. Women who experience more gender inequity and violence
3. Childhood sexual abuse increases range of risky behaviours resulting in an increase in HIV acquisition risk and vulnerability to further partner violence and rape
4. Ideals of marked gender hierarchy generally legitimize the use of violence in making and sustaining it

11

Ideals of marked gender hierarchy generally legitimize the use of violence in making and sustaining it

Co-occurs with ideals of masculinity which emphasize heterosexual performance
Toughness
Strength
Multiple partners
Men who are violent towards women tend to engage in risky sexual behaviours
Women partners of violent men have a higher risk of HIV acquisition per sexual act

12

Mechanism of increased risk

Long-term mental health impact of child sexual abuse
Co-occurring emotional neglect
Increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder
Substance abuse
Insecure adult attachment associated with increased rate of partner change and difficulties in emotional relationships

13

Childhood sexual abuse increases range of risky behaviours resulting in an increase in HIV acquisition risk and vulnerability to further partner violence and rape

Multiple and concurrent partners
Transactional sex
Substance abuse
Mechanism of increased risk

14

Women who experience more gender inequity and violence

Less able to protect themselves from HIV-low condom use and high frequency of intercourse
Lesser ability to decline sex
May have another partner for an emotionally more fulfilling relationship when trapped with a violent partner
Women with more equitable relationships are much more able to use condoms consistently with partner

15

Direct infection through rape

Seen in clinical practice especially in high HIV prevalent settings where many men who rape will be infected
At population level, risk of HIV acquisition from rape not great
Single act of intercourse
Unfounded fears that rapists are more likely to have HIV

16

Categories of child abuse?

Physical
Sexual
Emotional
Physical and emotional neglect

17

Interpersonal violence
Categories

Child maltreatment
Youth violence
Intimate partner violence
Sexual violence
Elder abuse