Viral Diseases of the Respiratory tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viral Diseases of the Respiratory tract Deck (68):
1

What is the most common cause of the common cold? Second most common?

Rhinovirus
Coronavirus

2

What is the virus that causes pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children?

RSV

3

What is the cause of croup?

Parainfluenza virus

4

What does adenovirus cause?

Common cold and pharyngitis in children

5

What does HSV usually cause?

Gingivostomatitis in children; pharyngotonsillitis in adults

6

What does human cytomegalovirus cause usually?

Mono-like disease or pneumonia in transplant pts

7

What does human metapneumovirus usually cause?

LRTI in children

8

What is the enveloped status, and genetic makeup of coronavirus?

Enveloped
+ssRNA

9

What type of virus is SARS and MERS?

Coronavirus

10

What is the animal reservoir for SARS? MERS?

SARS= bats
MERS= camels

11

What are the ssx for SARS and MERS?

Fever
Cough
SOB
ARDS

12

What is the severity of SARS? MERS?

SARS need hospitalization
MERS = asymptomatic to ARDS

13

What is the fatality rate of SARS? MERS?

SARS = 10%
MERS = 36%

14

How long do the ssx of the flu last?

3-5 days peaks
Fatigue and weakness x2-6 weeks

15

What is the incubation period for the flu?

1-4 days

16

What is the contagious period for the flu?

5-7 days post ssx.

17

What are the indications for treatment of the flu with oseltamivir?

within 48 hours of onset
Have risk factors

18

What is the MA of oseltamivir?

Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, serving as a competitive inhibitor of the activity of the viral neuraminidase (NA) enzyme upon sialic acid, found on glycoproteins on the surface of normal host cells. By blocking the activity of the enzyme, oseltamivir prevents new viral particles from being released through the cleaving of terminal sialic acid on glycosylated hemagglutinin and thus fail to facilitate virus release

19

Children under what age are at risk for complications from the flu?

Under 2 yo

20

Adults over what age are at risk for complications from the flu?

65

21

Pregnant women and women how many weeks postpartum are at increased risk for complications from the flu?

2 weeks postpartum

22

What medical conditions (generally) pose an increased risk for the development of complications from the flu?

Lung or heart disease
Kidney or liver disease

23

People younger than what age taking daily ASA are at increased risk for flu complications? What is the primary complication concerned here?

Younger than 19
Reye's syndrome

24

What is the MOA of zanamivir?

Neuraminidase inhibitor

25

What are the two M2 protein (ion channel) inhibitors for influenza type A?

Amantadine
Rimantadine

26

What is the route of administration for zanamivir? Oseltamivir?

Zanamivir = inhalation
Oseltamivir = oral

27

What is the pattern of pneumonia from influenza as compared to one from a bacterial infection following flu infection?

Bacterial following = biphasic
Primary = progressively worse

28

What is the average onset for pneumonia from influenza as compared to one from a bacterial infection following flu infection?

Bacterial = 7 days following initial ssx
Flu = 1-4 days

29

What are the culture results of pneumonia from influenza as compared to one from a bacterial infection following flu infection?

bacterial - bacteria
viral = PMNs

30

What is the usual CXR pattern of infiltrates with flu pneumonia?

Interstitial pattern

31

What is the fatality rate of pneumonia from the flu virus?

50%

32

What is the gram stain and morphology of H. influenzae?

gram negative rods

33

What group of people is the live attenuated vaccine for the flu appropriate for?

healthy, non-pregnant 2-49 year olds

34

What group of people is the recombinant vaccine for the flu appropriate for?

18-49

35

What group of people is the inactivated, IM vaccine for the flu appropriate for?

anyone older than 6 months

36

What group of people is the inactivated SQ vaccine for the flu appropriate for?

18-64

37

What is the makeup of the trivalent and quadrivalent flu vaccines?

2 A + 1 B
or
2 A + 2 B

38

What is the cell culture based vaccine? Who is this indicated for?

Flucelvax
greater than 18 yo

39

What is the high dose flu vaccine? In whom is this indicated?

Fluzone
Greater than 65

40

What is the intradermal vaccine for the flu? Who gets this?

Fluzone ID quadrivalent
18-64

41

What is the recombinant flu vaccine? Who gets this? How is this administered? How is this made?

Flublok
18 yo or older
IM
Insect eggs

42

What is the classic histological finding for herpes?

"owl eyes" Giant cells on tzanck smear

43

What is the classic histological finding for papillomavirus?

Clear cells

44

What is the classic histological finding for poxvirus?

Molluscum bodies

45

What is the family and genetic material for cytomegalovirus?

Herpesviridae
dsDNA

46

Where does cytomegalovirus replicate?

Mucosal epithelium

47

Where is cytomegalovirus latent?

Monocytes

48

What is the common risk factor for the development of CMV?

Immunosuppression from transplant

49

What is the usual ssx of CMV in immunocompetent individuals?

Asymptomatic to mono-like

50

What are the usual ssx of CMV in HIV patients?

CMV retinitis
Pneumonitis

51

What are the usual ssx of CMV in neonates?

CMV inclusion disease

52

What are the usual ssx of CMV in transplant recipients?

CMV pneumonitis
Gastritis

53

What percent of mothers with a new CMV infection will transmit the virus to the fetus?

37%

54

What percent of mothers with an old CMV infection will transmit the virus to the fetus?

1%

55

Does breast milk contain CMV in infectious mothers?

yes

56

What are the usual postnatal infectious etiologies of CMV?

Saliva or genital secretions
Toys

57

Is CMV sexually transmittable?

yes

58

What part of RBC transfusions contain CMV? How do you get rid of this issue?

Leukocytes
Leukoreduced RBCs

59

True or false: CMV in bone marrow transplant recipients are usually due to transmission via the graft

false-- usually due to patient's latent infection

60

What are the usual ssx of CMV transmission from transplants?

-Spiking fever 40 to below 3
-Malaise
-Pneumonitis
-Hepatitis
-Thrombocytopenia

61

What are the 2 antivirals that can be used to treat CMV?

ganciclovir
Valganciclovir

62

What is the MOA of ganciclovir and Valganciclovir?

DNA polymerase

63

How do you prevent CMV infection? (3)

-Match donors
-Antiviral prophylaxis
-Monitor for viremia, then give antivirals

64

What is the MOA of foscarnet? What is this used for?

Inhibition of DNA polymerase
CMV

65

True or false: Disseminated CMV does not show vesicular rashes in infants

True

66

What is the main complication from varicella?

Pneumonitis

67

What does EBV cause?

Mono

68

What is HHV8?

Kaposi's sarcoma