Virgil Mythological References Flashcards Preview

IB Latin Literature Mythological, Historical and Geographical References > Virgil Mythological References > Flashcards

Flashcards in Virgil Mythological References Deck (68):
1

Juno

Jupiter's sister and wife, the queen of the gods
She really doesn't like Trojans

2

Parcae

Originally goddesses of childbirth but became known as the Fates, who declare destiny which no one has the power to change, not even the gods

3

Paris

A Trojan prince who was abandoned at birth because of a prophecy stating that he would cause Troy to fall. He was forced to judge who was the most beautiful goddess out of Juno, Pallas/Minerva and Venus: Juno offered him power, Minerva victory in battle and Venus the heart of the most beautiful girl in the world. Paris chose Venus and won a Greek princess, Helen, who was already married to Menelaus of Sparta. He and his brother Agamemnon gathered a massive fleet of Greek ships and besieged Troy for ten years before defeating it and burning the city to the ground

4

Ganymede

A Trojan prince who was abducted by Jupiter, disguised as an eagle, and carried off to Olympus to be his cup-bearer and lover

5

Why does Juno hate the Trojans so much?

- Paris had scorned her in favour of Venus
- Jupiter had chosen a Trojan prince (Ganymede) as a lover on the side
- Descendants of the Trojans were destined to destroy Carthage, her favourite city

6

Achilles

A Greek prince and demigod who was invulnerable save for his heel. He killed Hector, the oldest prince of Troy and leader of the Trojan army, among thousands of other Trojans and citizens and soldiers from surrounding towns

7

Pallas

A Homerism of Minerva, goddess of wisdom and war

8

Ajax, son of Oileus

'Little Ajax', not to be confused with 'Big Ajax', son of Telamon. Little Ajax raped the Trojan princess and prophetess Cassandra in Minerva's temple, so as a punishment she killed him during his journey home from Troy

9

Jove

Another name for Jupiter, king of the gods

10

Venus

Goddess of love, daughter of Jupiter and mother of Aeneas

11

Antenor

A Trojan hero, one of King Priam's advisors, who managed to escape Troy and settle in Padua

12

Cytherea

Refers to the island of Cythera. Another legend states that Venus was not born from Jupiter but instead from Saturn's genitals after they fell into the ocean, and after her birth she touched on Cythera before settling on Paphos in Cyprus

13

Ascanius

Aeneas' son. He is very young when Troy falls, but grows to be a young man by their arrival in Italy

14

Iulus

Another name for Ascanius (previously Ilus after Ilium, a name for Troy). Provides a link to Julius Caesar, who apparently is descended from Aeneas and Ascanius

15

Hector

The oldest son of Priam of Troy, and the leader of the Trojan army until his death at the hands of Achilles. He was impossible to beat by any of the other Greeks (although Telamonian Ajax almost beat him in a duel) and killed many Greeks, including Patroclus, the second best Myrmidon soldier (behind Achilles) and Achilles' best friend and lover

16

Ilia

A priestess of Alba Longa also known as Rhea Silvia, who is impregnated by Mars and gives birth to Romulus and Remus

17

Romulus

The founder of Rome, raised with his twin brother Remus by a she-wolf. He later kills Remus during an argument

18

Assaracus

Aeneas' great-grandfather on his father's side

19

Maia

The mother of Mercury, the messenger god

20

Dido

The queen of Carthage and later love interest of Aeneas - but her story does not have a happy ending as she commits suicide when Aeneas leaves her at the instruction of Jupiter

21

Aeneas

The Aeneid's protagonist, Priam's nephew and Venus' son who is destined to found a city in Italy which will become Rome. He is famed for his piety and portrayed as a model for Romans to follow

22

Achates

Aeneas' right-hand man. He says very little and doesn't do anything major, but he's always there to carry out Aeneas' orders

23

Threissa

Harpalyce of Thrace, daughter of the Thracian king Harpalycus, was suckled by heifers and mares when her mother died and was raised as a warrior princess

24

Phoebus' sister

Diana, goddess of the hunt and twin sister of Apollo

25

Nymphs

Minor nature deities usually identified with a particular location or landform

26

Sychaeus

Dido's first husband, a rich man who was killed by Dido's tyrannical brother Pygmalion before the altars. His ghost helped her escape Tyre

27

Pygmalion

Dido's tyrannical brother, the king of Tyre, who killed her first husband Sychaeus before the altars and concealed the deed from Dido for a long time

28

Vesper

The goddess of the evening

29

Eagle

The sacred bird of Jupiter

30

Swan

The sacred bird of Venus

31

The sons of Atreus

Agamemnon and Menelaus, Greek kings and leaders of the Greek forces in the Trojan War. Menelaus was married to Helen of Troy

32

Priam

The king of Troy, father of Hector, Paris, Cassandra etc. and uncle of Aeneas

33

Rhesus

A Trojan ally from Thrace, killed in his sleep during a raid by Odysseus and Diomedes

34

The son of Tydeus

Diomedes, king of Argos and the youngest Greek leader, but one of the more experienced in battle and one of the best Greek soldiers

35

Troilus

One of Priam's youngest sons who was attacked by Achilles and dragged behind his horses. One legend says he was ambushed and killed while unarmed

36

The Trojan women praying to Pallas

During Diomedes' aristeia in Book 6 of the Iliad, Hector instructs the women of Troy to try and placate Minerva by placing a precious robe in her sanctuary in Troy in order to stop Diomedes' rampage. However, they are unaware that Minerva is actually the one helping Diomedes

37

Memnon

A warrior from Ethiopia who was killed by Achilles after killing Antilochus, Nestor's son, who sacrificed himself defending his aged father

38

The Amazons

An all-female fighting force, known for their skills in archery and their practice of sleeping with men before killing them

39

Penthesilea

The leader of the Amazons who joined the Trojan War after accidentally killing her sister Hippolyta. She no longer wanted to live, but since the only honourable way for an Amazon to die was in battle, she joined the doomed Trojan forces and was killed by Achilles

40

Aristaeus

A Greek shepherd, son of Cyrene and Apollo, who later became the patron god of cattle, fruit trees and beekeeping

41

Apollo

The god of the sun, music, poetry and divinity, son of Jupiter and twin brother of Artemis

42

Lucina

Goddess of childbirth

43

Arethusa

Originally a huntress, she became a sea-nymph after being pursued by the river god Alpheus

44

Vulcan

God of blacksmiths, he was deformed as a child after being thrown out of Olympus by Juno

45

Mars

God of war

46

Vulcan's empty efforts and Mars' tricks and stolen sweetness

This myth refers to the affair between Mars and Venus, who was married to Vulcan. In order to punish them, Vulcan rigged a net on his bed so that the pair were literally caught in the act and laughed at by the whole of Olympus

47

Chaos

The original state of the world from which the first deities appeared and organised it

48

Cyrene

Aristaeus' mother, a sea nymph and the daughter of Peneus

49

Bacchus

God of wine

50

Proteus

A seer and shapeshifter, Neptune's shepherd

51

Vesta

Goddess of the hearth

52

Neptune

God of the sea

53

Nereus

A major deity of the ocean

54

Ambrosia

The food of the gods

55

Orpheus

A Thracian prince (and possibly a son of Apollo) and husband of Eurydice famous for his musical talent: his playing could control nature

56

Eurydice

A wood nymph and Orpheus' wife, she was being pursued by Aristaeus when she was bitten by a snake and died. Orpheus struck a deal with Proserpina that he could retrieve her from the Underworld if he led her back without turning around; however, when they were almost there Orpheus turned around and Eurydice was lost forever

57

Dryads

Tree spirits

58

Orithyia

The wife of the North Wind

59

Dis

A synonym for the Underworld

60

Erebus

A synonym for the Underworld

61

Cocytus

The Underworld's river of lamentation

62

Styx

The main river of the Underworld

63

Tartarus

The deepest part of the Underworld

64

Eumenides

Another name for the Furies, female deities of vengeance that hound their victims until they die in torment. They are often depicted with snakes for hair

65

Cerberus

The Underworld's guard dog, who had three heads. One of Hercules' labours was to take him from his place at the entrance to the Underworld

66

Ixion

A son of either Ares or Phlegyas, king of the Lapiths. He murdered his father in law and could find no one to purify him until Jupiter did so and admitted him as a guest to Olympus. Ixion fell in love with Juno and Jupiter, knowing this, created a shadow of her which Ixion seduced instead. Jupiter, having obtained his proof, punished him by binding him on a fiery wheel which rolled unceasingly through the Underworld

67

The ferryman of Orcus

Charon, who manned the boat across the river Styx

68

Bacchic revels

Followers of Bacchus were known for entering a violent frenzy and mercilessly tearing apart anyone who scorned them and their god