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Flashcards in Virtue theory Deck (28)
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1
Q

What is eudaimonia?

A

According to Aristotle, it is ‘well being’ and fulfillment.

2
Q

What is the aim of virtue theory?

A

Eudaimonia

3
Q

What is ethos?

A

The character of a person by Aristotle.

4
Q

According to Aristotle, what are the three aspects of happiness?

A
  • A life of enjoyment
  • A life with freedom
  • Being a philosopher (living by reflection and contemplation).
5
Q

What is the most important virtue?

A

Wisdom

6
Q

What are the types of virtue and how are they developed?

A

Moral and intellectual. Moral is developed by habit and practice and intellectual is developed by education.

7
Q

What are the intellectual virtues?

A

Insight, wisdom and prudence

8
Q

What are the moral virtues?

A

Courage, patience, proper ambition and truthfulness

9
Q

What does Aquinas compare cultivating the virtues to?

A

A ‘first sketch’ that develops into a picture.

10
Q

What types of people does Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean produce?

A
  • The sophron
  • The enkrates
  • The akrates
11
Q

What is a sophron?

A

Someone who naturally lives in the mean without effort.

12
Q

What is the enkrates?

A

Someone who is tempted but has the will power to stay in the mean.

13
Q

What is the akrates?

A

A person who is tempted by vices and has no will power.

14
Q

What is the doctrine of the mean?

A

The balance between excess and deficiency.

15
Q

What is the excess and efficiency of courage?

A

Rashness and cowardice

16
Q

What is the excess and efficiency of generosity?

A

Vulgarity and pettiness

17
Q

What is the excess and efficiency of modesty?

A

Shyness and shamelessness

18
Q

What are the key virtues?

A

Courage, wisdom, temperance and justice with wisdom driving them all.

19
Q

What does Jesus say on the sermon on the mount?

A

‘blessed are the peacemakers…’
‘blessed are those who mourn…’
‘blessed are the meek…’

20
Q

What does ‘poor in spirit’ mean?

A

Those who are oppressed, enslaved and have their rights taken from them.

21
Q

What does ‘mourning’ mean?

A

Concern for loss of possession, status, health or a person.

22
Q

What does ‘meek’ mean?

A

A description of discipline and self control.

23
Q

What is a good thing about virtue theory?

A

It focuses on the way that we behave rather than simply what we should believe.

24
Q

Why is virtue theory attractive to feminist thinkers?

A

It is an alternative to the rules and duties that are stereotypically a male way of approaching life.

25
Q

Give three challenges to virtue theory.

A
  • It doesn’t fit conveniently into the category of either teleological or deontological.
  • Virtues are not a practical guide to moral behaviour
  • Cultural relativism and the use of virtues for immoral acts
26
Q

Explain the challenge of the virtues not being practical for moral behaviour.

A
  • Could be seen as vague, imprecise and arbitrary.
  • There is too much dependence on the potential goodness of others
  • Too individualistic so not practical for society as a whole
  • Too complex for many humans to apply, even Aristotle recognised that not everyone has the same ability when resisting a vice.
27
Q

Explain the challenge of cultural relativism.

A
  • There is a degree of behaviour and there has been clear instances where one society’s virtue is considered another society’s vice.
28
Q

What is a problem with the virtues?

A

The virtues are very subjective as there could be differences in expressing a virtue for example warriors are praised for their courage.