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Pulm IDIS > Virulence/Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Virulence/Immunology Deck (32):
1

Common cold
Rhinovirus
1. Host receptor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. ICAM-1 (CD54)
2. Binds human cells and infects

2

Bacterial rhinosinusitis
S. pneumoniae
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Capsule
2. Prevents WBC phagocytosis

3

Bacterial rhinosinusitis
H. influenzae
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Capsule
If non typeable: lipooligosaccharide (LOS)
2. LOS helps bind to nonciliated epithelial cells

4

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis
Rhizopus and Rhizomucor
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Fungal spores
2. Spores germinate and hyphae penetrate host tissue and clog vessels. Necrosis results. IC host can't phagocytize spores fast enough

5

Pharyngitis
S. pyogenes
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Hyaluronic acid capsule and M protein
2. Both prevent WBC phagocytosis

6

Scarlet fever
S. pyogenes
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Streptococcal Pyogenic exotoxin A-C (Spe A-C, erythrogenic toxin A-C)
2. Spe A-C can cause damage to capillary walls in skin - causing rash. Also are super antigens that cause overstimulation of immune cells and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

7

Rheumatic heart disease following pharyngitis
S. pyogenes
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. M protein
2. Antigenic and causes host cells to make antibodies that react with M proteins but also with host proteins on the surface of the heart valves

8

Diphtheria
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Diphtheria toxin
2. ADP ribosylation if host cell elongation factor II stopping protein production and causing cell death

9

Epiglottitis
H. influenzae type B
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Capsule
2. Prevents WBC phagocytosis

10

Bronchiolitis
RSV
1. Host receptor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. CXCR1 on ciliated human airway epithelial cells OR heparin sulfate on immortalized tissue culture cells
2. Allows virus to bind and then infect

11

Influenza
Influenza virus A
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Hemagglutinin and neuroaminidase
2. Hemagglutinin helps binding. Neuraminidase helps virus escape host cells

12

Whooping cough
Bordetella pertussis
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Filamentous hemagglutinin, cytotoxin, pertussis toxin
2. FH: attachment to ciliated epithelial cells
Cytotoxin: cell death of cells that line trachea
Pertussis toxin: causes nearly ALL of the cell damage of the trachea by ADP ribosylating guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)

13

Pneumonia
S. pneumoniae
H. influenzae
K. pneumoniae
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Al have capsules
2. Prevent WBC phagocytosis

14

Pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Cytadherence organelle
2. Adherence to ciliated columnar epithelial airway cells

15

Pneumonia
Viruses and Chlamydia bacteria species
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Invade and live in alveolar macrophages and other cells of the lungs
2. Avoid elimination, harder to detect

16

Pneumonia
M. tuberculosis
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Can survive in phagocytes even AFTER being phagocytized
2. Can live and multiply

17

Pneumonia in pts with CP
P. aeruginosa
1. Virulence factor
2. How it promotes virulence

1. Alginate production
2. An exopolysaccharide that allows it to bind to host cells. Part of the matrix surrounding the biofilm that forms in the pts lungs. Biofilm protects from phagocytosis

18

There are live vaccines for the following:

Poliomyelitis
MMR
Chickenpox
Shingles
Rotavirus
Influenza
Tuberculosis

19

Oral Sabin vaccine

Poliomyelitis

20

VAR/Varivax vaccine

Chickenpox

21

ZOS/Zostavax vaccine

Shingles

22

RV monovalent or pentavalent vaccine

Rotavirus

23

LAIV4 vaccine

Influenza

24

BCG vaccine

Tuberculosis

25

Injected Salk vaccine

Poliomyelitis

26

IIV4

Influenza

27

There are killed vaccines for the following :

Poliomyelitis
Hep A
Influenza
Rabies

28

There are subunit vaccines for the following:

Diphtheria
Tetanus
Pertussis
H. influenzae type B
S. pneumoniae
N. meningitidis
Hep B
HPV

29

PCV13 (conjugated) vaccine
PPSV23 (polysaccharide) vaccine

S. pneumoniae

30

MenACWY (conjugated) vaccine
MPSV4 (polysaccharide) vaccine
Serogroup B vaccine

N. meningitidis

31

1. Gardasil, HPV4
2. Cervarix, HPV2
3. Gardasil 9, HPV9

1. Warts (6, 11) and cancer (16, 18)
2. Cancer (16, 18)
3. 1. Warts (6, 11) and cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58)

32

Vaccines for military and travelers as appropriate:

Adeno
Japanese encephalitis
Smallpox and monkeypox
Yellow fever
Salmonella typhi

All are live except Japanese encephalitis. Salmonella typhi can be live or killed