Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Supplements Flashcards Preview

Ther 201 LE 3 > Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Supplements > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Supplements Deck (106):
1

organic molecules needed in small quantities for normal metabolism
attach to enzymes or coenzymes

vitamins

2

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

3

T/F daily intake is required for fat soluble vitamins

F

4

Vitamin A Function

growth and development of bones and teeth
reproduction
mucosal and epithelial surfaces integrity
cholesterol and steroid synthesis
night vision

5

Vitamin A indications

dietary supplement for pregnant women
hyperkeratosis of skin
night blindness
skin conditions: acne, psoriasis, keratosis follicularis

6

Vitamin A Toxicity manifestation

hair loss, nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision bone pain, irregular menstruation, fatigue
inc ICP
peeling of skin
fatal

7

Vitamin D forms

D2
D3
calcifediol
calcitriol
dihydrotachysterol

8

Vitamin D2

Ergocalciferol

9

Vitamin D3

cholecalcifirol

10

D2 vs. D3

D2: plant, through diet
D3: skin by UV irradiation

11

Vitamin D Function

regulates absorption/use of Ca and P
necessary for normal calcification of bone and teeth

12

Vitamin D Indication

dietary supplement
vit D deficiency
long term deficiencies correction
osteoporosis prevention

13

Long Term Deficiencies example

ROT
rickets, osteomalacia, tetany

14

Vitamin D deficiency Causes

inadequate sun exposure
darker skin reduced sunlight penetration
people >65y/o have decreased capacity to synthesize VitD from sun
lower circulating VitD for obese people

15

Vitamin D Toxicity Manifestations

stunted growth, weight loss, thirst, sore eyes, itching skin
hypertension
vomiting, diarrhea, urinary urgency, abnormal calcium deposits

16

Vitamin E (name)

Tocopherol

17

Vitamin E function

anti-oxidant
treatment for deficiency (in prematures)

18

Vitamin E toxicity manifestation

death

19

Vitamin K types

K1
K2
K3

20

antidote for rat poisoning

K1 (Aquamephyton)

21

Vitamin K forms

animal: Menaquinone
plant: Phylloquinone (phyllo = leaf -> plant)

22

Vitamin K function

blood coagulation factor synthesis
Vit K dependentclotting factors (1972 (IX, X, VII, II)
bone metabolism

23

Vitamin K indications

supplement
treatment for deficiency states
reverse anticoagulant effects (Warfarin)

24

Cite examples of Deficiency States which can be treated with Vitamin K

antibiotic therapy (long term use)
new born infants
fat malabsorption (celiac disease, Crohns, Cystic fibrosis)
reduced blood clotting, excessive bleeding

25

Vitamin K toxic effects

brain, liver damge
jaundice
RBC destruction

26

Water Soluble Vitamins

B, C

27

B1 (name)

Thiamine

28

B2 (name)

Riboflavin

29

B3 (name)

Niacin

30

B5 (name)

Panthotenic Acid

31

B6 (name)

Pyridoxine

32

B9 (name)

Folic Acid

33

B12 (name)

Cyanocobalamin

34

C (name)

Ascorbic Acid

35

T/F LARGE amounts of water soluble vitamins CANNOT be stored and thus REQUIRES DAILY intake

T

36

Thiamine Functions

-carbohydrate metab
-PNS, CVS and GIT integrity

37

Thiamine Indications

Beriberi
Wernicke's Encephalopathy
Peripheral neuritis

38

Antidote for alcohol poisoning

B1 (Thiamine)

39

Riboflavin functions

-Converted to enzymes for cellular respiration
-B6 activation
-tryptophan -> niacin
-erythrocyte integrity

40

Deficiency in Riboflavin results in

Cheilosis
Cutaneous, oral and corneal changes
Seborrheic dermatitis
Keratitis

41

type of anemia wherein B2(Riboflavin) is indicated

Microcytic Anemia

42

B2 Riboflavin indications

microcytic anemia
acne
migraine

43

Niacin functions

-converted into nicotinamide which is required to convert 2 coenzymes for (1) glycogenolysis (2) lipid,protein,purine metab

44

Niacin Deficiency results to

Pellagra

45

Niacin indication

Antihyperlipidemic agent - reduces VLDL synthesis

46

Niacin side effects

flushing
pruritis
GI distress

47

Pantothenic acid functions

fat processing
converts nutrients to energy

48

Pantothenic acid deficiency results to

tingling hands and feet
lost appetite

49

Pyridoxine functoins

-protein, lipid and carb utilization
-tryptophan -> niacin
-PNS, skin, mucous integrity

50

anemia related to Pyridoxine deficiency

Sideroblastic anemia

51

Pyridoxine deficiency results to

Sideroblastic anemia
cheilosis - lip fissures
xanthurenic aciduria - urine stones

52

Drugs which can cause pyridoxine deficiency

isoniazid, hydralazine

53

Pyridoxine toxicity results to

Neurotoxicity

54

Folic acid functions

avoid neurotubular defects
protects body from AA linked to heart disease and stroke

55

Folic acid deficiency is related to which type of anemia

Macrocytic anemia (enlarged RBC)

56

Cyanocobalamin functions

2 different coenzymes
required for many catabolic pathways

57

Cyanocobalamin deficiency is related to which type of anemia

Pernicious anemia

58

requirement for B12 absorption

Intrinsic factor
(intrinsic + extrinsic factors form a complex absorbed by intestines)

59

intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein secreted by

gastric parietal cells

60

Vitamin C functions

redox, antioxidant
required for metabolic activities
IRON absorption

61

Vitamin C indications

dietary supplement
scurvy
high pH urine (it's an acidifier)

62

Vitamin C overdose causes

nausea
headache
stone formation

63

Mineral mainly found in dairy products

calcium

64

Groups requiring high calcium

children
pregnant
breastfeeding women

65

Ca functions

cell membrane and capillary permeability
muscle contraction
nerve conduction
renal, respi, blood coagulation

66

required for efficient Ca absorption

Vit D

67

hypocalcemia causes

Ricketts (infantile)
osteomalacia
osteoporosis

68

Ca indications

hypocalcemia
pregnant

69

important drug interaction with Ca

tetracylines - form insolube complexes

70

principal intracellular fluid cation

Mg

71

Mg functions

bone structure, 300 enzyme system cofactors, ATP, DNA and proteins, vit D metab, contraction, blood clot

72

Mg indications

anticonvulsant
tocolytic agent - inhibits uterine contraction

73

Hypermagnesia effects

tendon reflex loss

74

Phosphorus functions

building block for body structures
precursor for essential chemicals
cellular ENERGY TRANSFER
skeletal system and teeth maintenance

75

P indications

deficiency
poor diets

76

P overdose can cause

interference with iron absorption
cause osteoporosis
muscle spasms, convulsions

77

mineral helped to protect body from cancer

selenium

78

Zn function

for normal tissue growth and wound repair

79

Zn deficiency

Pneumonia
DIARRHEA
Common cold
Age-related Macular degeneration

80

Zn overdose

may be linked to Alzheimer's Disease

81

important Zn drug interaction

high iron decreases Zn absorption
high Zn inhibits copper absorption

82

mineral stored in teeth and bones

fluoride

83

Fluoride function

teeh and bone maintenance
protects teeth from bacteria by combining with calcium and phosphorus

84

F deficiency

dental caries

85

F overdose

fluorosis - inc protein of enamel, makes it porous

86

Herb with coumadin interaction

Gingko biloba
inc risk of bleeding

87

shown to increase T lymphocyte cell counts

Ginseng

88

Garlic effects/claims

lower blood cholesterol
slow development of atherosclerosis

89

can safely relive pregnancy-reated nausea and vomiting

ginger

90

Green Tea effects/claims

protect by slowing growth of certain cancers
caffeine to improve mental alertness

91

St. John's Wort claim

used for mild to moderate depression

92

Drug interaction St. John's Wort

DEC effects:
indinavir
cyclosporin
irinotecan

93

herb with proposed use for benign prostate hypertrophy

Saw Palmetto

94

Saw palmetto functions

anti inflamm, prolactin inhibition

95

Cranberry claim

UTI prevention/allev

96

Echinacea claim

used to treat and prevent colds, flu, other infection

97

Kava use

anxiety

98

herb used as CNS stimulant and decongestant

Ephedra

99

herb banned by FDA in April,2004 (Mean Girls reference daw)

Ephedra

100

Anti-arthritic

Chondroitin

101

Glutathione function

detoxification

102

Glutathione claims

liver problem allev
skin whitening

103

Omega 3 FA functions

anti-inflam, anti-clotting
slow down abnormal thickening of artery walls caused by FA deposition
lowers irregular heartbeats
lower blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol

104

Omega 3 FA examples

ALA - alpha-linoleic acid
EPA - eicosapentaenoic acid
DHA - docosahexaenoic acid

105

Creatine claims and problems

improve muscle power; muscle cramps

106

protein/AA claims and problems

muscle growth; dehydration, KIDNEY STRESS