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Endocrine System > Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab Deck (52)
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Growth hormone

Stimulates growth in all organs,
mobilizes food molecules,
causes an increase in blood glucose concentration

1

Thyroid hormone

Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones

2

Releasing hormone

Stimulate the interior pituitary to release hormones

3

Inhibiting hormone

Inhibit the interior pituitary secretion of hormones

4

T3 & t4 hormones

Stimulate The energy metabolism cells

5

Parathyroid hormone

Stimulates the breakdown of bone
causes an increase in blood calcium concentration

6

Adrenaline

Prolong and intensify the sympathetic nervous response during stress

7

Sex hormone (androgens)

Stimulate sexual drive in the female but have negligible effects in the male

8

Insulin

Promotes glucose entry into all cells causing a decrease in blood glucose concentration

9

Glucagon

Stimulates Live glycogenolysis causing an increase in blood glucose concentration

10

Estrogens

Promotes development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics

11

Testosterone

Promotes development and maintenance of mail sexual characteristics

12

Thymosins

Promotes development of immune system cells

13

Melatonin

Inhibits tropic hormones that affects the ovaries
may be involved in the body's internal clock

14

Exocrine glands

Secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface or into a cavity

15

Endocrine glands

Ductless glands that secrete hormones into intercellular spaces

16

Target cell

Cell in which a reaction of a hormone takes place

17

Hypersecretion

Production of too much hormones in one gland

18

Hyposecretion

Production of too little hormones in a gland

19

Nonsteroid hormone

Serves as a first messenger
provides communication between endocrine glands and target organs

20

cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)

Serves as a second messenger
provides communication within a hormones target cells

21

Steroid hormone

New protein is formed in the cytoplasm that produces specific effects in the target cell

22

Negative feedback

Reverse changes back to normal

23

Positive feedback

Amplify changes

24

Prostaglandins (PG's)

Tissue hormone
Influence activities of neighboring cells

25

What are the three different types of prostaglandins (PG's) and what what do they do.

Prostaglandin A (PGA)
Prostaglandin E (PGE)
Prostaglandin F (PGF)
Influence respiration , gastrointestinal secretion, blood pressure, inflammation, and the reproductive system

26

Pituitary gland

Master gland
Small but mighty structure
No larger than a pea
Really 2 glands in one
(Anterior pituitary gland & posterior pituitary gland)

27

Anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)

Structure of endocrine gland

28

Posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)

Structure of nervous system

29

Stella turcica

Sphenoid gland that holds pituitary gland

30

Tropic hormone

Stimulates another endocrine gland to grow and secrete it's hormones

31

Prolactin

Stimulates the breast development for milk stimulation

32

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Accelerates the reabsorption of water from urine in the kidney tubules back into the blood

33

Diabetes insidipus

Hypo secretion of ADH (antidiuretic)
Large volumes of urine are formed

34

Oxytocin (OT)

Stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle of the pregnant uterus and is believed to initiate and maintain labor
-stimulates "milk let down"
-supports mother infant bond

35

Corticoids

Hormones secreted by the three layers of the adrenal cortex

36

Mineralcorticoids

Hormones secreted at the outer layer of the adrenal cortex

37

Aldosterone

Main mineralocorticoid
Increase the amount of sodium and decrease the amount of potassium in the blood

38

Gluconeogenesis

A process that converts amino acids to glucose and that is performed mainly by liver cells
- maintains normal blood glucose level
& blood pressure

39

Epinephrine & norepinephrine

"Adrenaline" is epinephrine
- they both stimulate "fight or flight" response

40

Glucagon

Secreted by alpha cells

41

Glycogenolysis

A chemical process by which the glucose in the liver cells in the form of glycogen is converted to glucose

42

Type 1 diabetes

When pancreatic islets secrete too little insulin
-blood glucose levels increases

43

Type 2 diabetes

Increase of insulin
Prevents normal affect of insulin on it's targeting cells

44

Insulin

Only hormone that can decrease blood glucose concentration levels

45

Glycosuria

When excess glucose is lost in the urine

46

Chorionic gonadotropin

Produced by placenta during pregnancy
-tropic hormone secreted by cells of the chorion

47

Chorion

Outermost membrane that surrounds the baby during development in the uterus

48

Melatonin

Regulated the menstrual cycle in women

49

Ghrelin

Secreted by epithelial cells lining the stomach and boosts appetite, slows metabolism, and reduced fat burning.

50

Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)

Secreted by cells in the wall of the hearts atria (upper chambers)
- regulator in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and is an antagonist to aldosterone

51

Leptin

Secreted by fat storing cells throughout the body
-regulates how hungry or how full we feel and how fat is metabolized by the body.