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Flashcards in Vocab Deck (27)
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1

concept

mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

2

prototype

mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to the Prototype provides a quick and easy method 4 including items into a category

3

algorithm

methodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantees solving a particular problem; step by step problem solving method that will always result in the right answer unless you mess up.

4

heuristic

simple thinking strategies that allow us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; less time consuming but more error-prone then algorithms

5

representative heuristic

based on how well something fits your prototype. judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes.

6

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

7

insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; congrats w strategy based solutions

8

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

9

fixation

inability to see a problem from A New Perspective

10

mental set

tendency to solve problems the same or similar ways

11

functional fixedness

inability to see something as having a new function

12

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident then correct. To overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

13

framing effect

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

14

belief bias

the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes make invalid conclusions seem valid or vice versa

15

belief preservation

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

16

phoneme

in a spoken language the smallest distinctive sound unit

17

morpheme

in language the smallest unit that carries meaning maybe a word or part of a word

18

semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; the study of meaning

19

linguistic determinism

Benjamin whorf hypothesis that language determines the way we think

20

aptitude tests

a test designed to predict a person's future performance.

21

achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

22

normal curve

symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

23

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test or the retesting

24

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

25

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of Interest

26

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict. it is assessed by computing scores and the criterion behavior

27

stereotype threat

a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype