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Flashcards in Vocab Deck (165)
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1

Glycogenolysis

Glycogen breakdown; glucose production

2

Glycolysis

Glucose breakdown; forming two molecules of pyruvates, ATP production w/o oxygen (anaerobic energy metabolism)

3

Lipolysis

Breakdown of triacylglycerol (triglyceride) to fatty acids and glycerol

4

B-oxidation

Breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA

5

Proteolysis

Breakdown of protein to amino acids

6

Transamination/Deamination

Transfer/removal of amino acid group from amino acids

7

Citric acid cycle

A central metabolic pathway, oxidizing acetyl-CoA to CO2 and generating reducing equivalents (NADH+H, FADH2) and GTP (ATP)

8

Oxidative Phosphorylation

A series of coupled processes in which reducing equivalents are oxidized, and the resulting proton gradient enables ATP production.

9

Gluconeogensis

Glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrate sources

10

Ketogenesis

Formation of ketones from acetyl-CoA

11

Glycogenesis

Formation of glycogen

12

Lipogenesis

Synthesis of fatty acids and formation of triacyglycerol

13

Catabolism

Breaking down nutrients to smaller units, releases energy

14

Anabolism

Builds nutrients to build tissues, need energy

15

Energy metabolism

Chemical reactions involved in breakdown, synthesis, and transformation of energy-yielding nutrients that enable cells to obtain and use energy from nutrients

16

Photosynthesis is ______ and consumes energy (Co2 +H20 --> Glucose)

Anabolic

17

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disease where people lack the ______ enzyme and can't convert phenylalanine to ______

phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine

18

Oxidized

Loses electrons

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Reduced

Gains electrons

20

A _______ would have more glycolytic muscle or ATP production w/o oxygen

Sprinter

21

Triacylglycerol

Hydrophobic, more condensed than glycogen, can be made by any energy substrate

22

Glycogen

Polymer of glucose, attracts lots of water, very heavy, shorter store of carbohydrates, only made from carbs

23

Ketosis

High levels of ketones in blood

24

Ketoacidosis

Severe ketosis, lowered blood pH, results in nausea, coma, death, often occurs in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes (body thinks they are in starvation since they can't secrete insulin and can't store glucose)

25

Type 1 diabetes

Muscle unable to use glucose due to low insulin in the blood (low insulin production), increased glucose in blood, ketoacidosis

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Type 2 diabetes

Muscle unable to use glucose due to insulin resistance

27

High glycemic index

Spikes blood glucose levels

28

Glucagon

Secreted by alpha cells in the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels

29

Ghrelin

Hormone that makes us hungry, based on biological clock

30

Leptin

Satiety hormone, long term signal, inhibits intake