# vocab Flashcards

## glossary

absolute return products

Absolute return products are investment products viewed as having little or no return correlation with traditional assets, and have investment performance that is often analyzed on an absolute basis rather than relative to the performance of traditional investments.

absolute return standard

An absolute return standard means that returns are to be evaluated relative to zero, a fixed rate, or relative to the riskless rate, and therefore independently of performance in equity markets, debt markets, or any other markets.

active management

Active management refers to efforts of buying and selling securities in pursuit of superior combinations of risk and return.

active return

Active return is the difference between the return of a portfolio and its benchmark that is due to active management.

active risk

Active risk is that risk that causes a portfolio’s return to deviate from the return of a benchmark due to active management.

alternative investments

Alternative investments are sometimes viewed as including any investment that is not simply a long position in traditional investments.

benchmark

A benchmark is a performance standard for a portfolio that reflects the preferences of an investor with regard to risk and return.

benchmark return

A benchmark return is the return of the benchmark index or benchmark portfolio

commodities

Commodities are homogeneous goods available in large quantities, such as energy products, agricultural products, metals, and building materials.

compensation structure

Compensation structure refers to the ways that organizational issues, especially compensation schemes, influence particular investments.

distressed debt

Distressed debt refers to the debt of companies that have filed or are likely to file in the near future for bankruptcy protection.

diversifier

A diversifier is an investment with a primary purpose of contributing diversification benefits to its owner.

efficiency

Efficiency refers to the tendency of market prices to reflect all available information.

farmland

Farmland consists of land cultivated for row crops (e.g., vegetables and grains) and permanent crops (e.g., orchards and vineyards).

financial asset

A financial asset is not a real asset—it is a claim on cash flows, such as a share of stock or a bond.

hedge fund

A hedge fund as a privately organized investment vehicle that uses its less regulated nature to generate investment opportunities that are substantially distinct from those offered by traditional investment vehicles, which are subject to regulations such as those restricting their use of derivatives and leverage.

illiquidity

Illiquidity means that the investment trades infrequently or with low volume (i.e., thinly).

incomplete markets

Incomplete markets refer to markets with insufficient distinct investment opportunities

inefficiency

Inefficiency refers to the deviation of actual prices from valuations that would be anticipated in an efficient market.

information asymmetries

Information asymmetries refer to the extent to which market participants possess different data and knowledge.

infrastructure investments

Infrastructure investments are claims on the income of toll roads, regulated utilities, ports, airports, and other real assets that are traditionally held and controlled by the public sector (i.e., various levels of government).

institutional structure

Institutional structure refers to the financial markets and financial institutions related to a particular investment, such as whether the investment is publicly traded.

institutional-quality investment

An institutional-quality investment is the type of investment that financial institutions such as pension funds or endowments might include in their holdings because they are expected to deliver reasonable returns at an acceptable level of risk.

investment

An investment is that it is deferred consumption. Any net outlay of cash made with the prospect of receiving future benefits might be considered an investment.

land

Land comprises a variety of forms, including undeveloped land, timberland, and farmland.

lumpy assets

Lumpy assets are assets that can be bought and sold only in specific quantities, such as a large real estate project.

mezzanine debt

Mezzanine debt derives its name from its position in the capital structure of a firm: between the ceilings of senior secured debt and the floor of equity.

moral hazard

Moral hazard is risk that the behavior of one or more parties will change after entering into a contract.

operationally focused real assets

Operationally focused real assets include real estate, land, infrastructure, and intellectual property.

passive investing

Passive investing tends to focus on buying and holding securities in an effort to match the risk and return of a target, such as a highly diversified index.

private equity

The term private equity is used in the CAIA curriculum to include both equity and debt positions that, among other things, are not publicly traded.

pure arbitrage

Pure arbitrage is the attempt to earn risk-free profits through the simultaneous purchase and sale of identical positions trading at different prices in different markets.

real assets

Real assets are investments in which the underlying assets involve direct ownership of nonfinancial assets rather than ownership through financial assets, such as the securities of manufacturing or service enterprises.

real estate

Real estate focuses on land and improvements that are permanently affixed, like buildings

regulatory structure

Regulatory structure refers to the role of government, including both regulation and taxation, in influencing the nature of an investment.

relative return standard

A relative return standard means that returns are to be evaluated relative to a benchmark.

return diversifier

If the primary objective of including the product is the reduction in the portfolio’s risk that it is believed to offer through its lack of correlation with the portfolio’s other assets, then that product is often referred to as a return diversifier.

return enhancer

If the primary objective of including an investment product in a portfolio is the superior average returns that it is believed to offer, then that product is often referred to as a return enhancer.

securities structure

Securities structure refers to the structuring of cash flows through leverage and securitization.

structured products

Structured products are instruments created to exhibit particular return, risk, taxation, or other attributes.

timberland

Timberland includes both the land and the timber of forests of tree species typically used in the forest products industry.

trading structure

Trading structure refers to the role of an investment vehicle’s investment managers in developing and implementing trading strategies.

traditional investments

Traditional investments include publicly traded equities, fixed-income securities, and cash.

40 Act funds

Mutual funds, or ’40 Act funds, are registered investment pools offering their shareholders pro rata claims on the fund’s portfolio of assets.

back office operations

Back office operations play a supportive role in the maintenance of accounts and information systems used to transmit important market and trader information in all trading transactions, as well as in the clearance and settlement of the trades.

bid-ask spread

The price difference between the highest bid price (the best bid price) and the lowest offer (the best ask price) is the bid-ask spread.

buy side

Buy side refers to the institutions and entities that buy large quantities of securities for the portfolios they manage.

closed-end mutual fund

Closed-end mutual fund structures provide investors with relatively liquid access to the returns of underlying assets even when the underlying assets are illiquid.

commercial bank

A commercial bank focuses on the business of accepting deposits and making loans, with modest investment-related services.

custodians

Depositories and custodians are very similar entities that are responsible for holding their clients’ cash and securities and settling clients’ trades, both of which maintain the integrity of clients’ assets while ensuring that trades are settled quickly.

dark pool

A dark pool refers to non-exchange trading by large market participants that is hidden from the view of most market participants.

depositories

Depositories and custodians are very similar entities that are responsible for holding their clients’ cash and securities and settling clients’ trades, both of which maintain the integrity of clients’ assets while ensuring that trades are settled quickly.

Depository Trust Company (DTC)

The Depository Trust Company (DTC) is the principal holding body of securities for traders all over the world and is part of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC), which provides clearing, settlement, and information services.

endowment

An endowment is a fund bestowed on an individual or institution (e.g., a museum, university, hospital, or foundation) to be used by that entity for specific purposes and with principal preservation in mind.

family office

A family office is a group of investors joined by familial or other ties who manage their personal investments as a single entity, usually hiring professionals to manage money for members of the office.

financial data providers

Financial data providers supply funds primarily with raw financial market data, including security prices, trading information, and indices.

financial platforms

Financial platforms are systems that provide access to financial markets, portfolio management systems, accounting and reporting systems, and risk management systems.

financial software

Financial software may consist of prepackaged software programs and computer languages tailored to the needs of financial organizations. Some funds use open-source software, and others pay licensing fees for proprietary software.

foundation

A foundation is a not-for-profit organization that donates funds and support to other organizations for its own charitable purposes.

fourth markets

Fourth markets are electronic exchanges that allow traders to quickly buy and sell exchange-listed stocks via the electronic communications systems offered by these markets.

front office operations

Front office operations involve investment decision-making and, in the case of brokerage firms, contact with clients.

fund administrator

The fund administrator maintains a general ledger account, marks the fund’s books, maintains its records, carries out monthly accounting, supplies its monthly profit and loss (P&L) statements, calculates its returns, verifies asset existence, independently calculates fees, and provides an unbiased, third-party resource for price confirmation on security positions.

hedge fund replication

Hedge fund replication is the attempt to mimic the returns of an illiquid or highly sophisticated hedge fund strategy using liquid assets and simplified trading rules.

investment bank

An investment bank focuses on providing sophisticated investment services, including underwriting and raising capital, as well as other activities such as brokerage services, mergers, and acquisitions.

large dealer banks

Large dealer banks are major financial institutions, such as Goldman Sachs, Deutsche Bank, and the Barclays Group, that deal in securities and derivatives.

liquid alternatives

Liquid alternatives are investment vehicles that offer alternative strategies in a form that provides investors with liquidity through opportunities to sell their positions in a market.

management company operating agreement

A management company operating agreement is an agreement between members related to a limited liability company and the conduct of its business as it pertains to the law.

market making

market making

market orders

Market participants that wish to have transactions executed without delay may place market orders, which cause immediate execution at the best available price.

market takers

Participants that place market orders are market takers, which buy at ask prices and sell at bid prices, generally paying the bid-ask spread for taking liquidity.

Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID)

The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) is an EU law that establishes uniform regulation for investment managers in the European Economic Area (the EU plus Iceland, Norway, and Liechtenstein).

master limited partnerships (MLPs)

Master limited partnerships (MLPs) are publicly traded investment pools that are structured as limited partnerships and that offer their owners pro rata claims.

middle office operations

Middle office operations form the interface between the front office and the back office, with a focus on risk management.

mutual funds

Mutual funds, or ’40 Act funds, are registered investment pools offering their shareholders pro rata claims on the fund’s portfolio of assets.

partnership agreement

A partnership agreement is a formal written contract creating a partnership.

plan sponsor

A plan sponsor is a designated party, such as a company or an employer, that establishes a health care or retirement plan (pension) that has special legal or taxation status, such as a 401(k) retirement plan in the United States for employees.

primary market

A primary market refers to the methods, institutions, and mechanisms involved in the placement of new securities to investors.

prime broker

The prime broker has the following primary functions: clearing and financing trades for its client, providing research, arranging financing, and producing portfolio accounting.

private limited partnerships

Private limited partnerships are a form of business organization that potentially offers the benefit of limited liability to the organization’s limited partners (similar to that enjoyed by shareholders of corporations) but not to its general partner.

private-placement memoranda

Private-placement memoranda (a.k.a. offering documents) are formal descriptions of an investment opportunity that comply with federal securities regulations.

progressive taxation

Progressive taxation places higher-percentage taxation on individuals and corporations with higher incomes.

proprietary trading

Proprietary trading occurs when a firm trades securities with its own money in order to make a profit.

Regulation T margin rule

Federal Reserve Board leverage rules include the Regulation T margin rule, which currently requires a deposit of at least 50% of the purchase cost or short sale proceeds of a trade (margin).

secondary market

A secondary market facilitates trading among investors of previously existing securities.

Section 1256 contracts

Section 1256 contracts include many futures and options contracts; have potentially enormous tax advantages in the United States. including having their income treated as 60% long-term capital gain and 40% short-term capital gain regardless of holding period.

securitization

Securitization involves bundling assets, especially unlisted assets, and issuing claims on the bundled assets.

sell side

Sell-side institutions, such as large dealer banks, act as agents for investors when they trade securities.

separately managed accounts

Separately managed accounts (SMAs) are individual investment accounts offered by a brokerage firm and managed by independent investment management firms.

soft dollar arrangement

A soft dollar arrangement generally refers to an agreement or an understanding by which an investment adviser receives research services from a broker-dealer in exchange for a fee (such as a commission) paid out of the fund or client account.

sovereign wealth funds

Sovereign wealth funds are state-owned investment funds held by that state’s central bank for the purpose of future generations and/or to stabilize the state currency.

subscription agreement

A subscription agreement is an application submitted by an investor who desires to join a limited partnership.

systemic risk

Systemic risk is the potential for economy-wide losses attributable to failures or concerns over potential failures in financial markets, financial institutions, or major participants.

third markets

Third markets are regional exchanges where stocks listed in primary secondary markets can also be traded. In the United States, third markets allow brokers and dealers to set up trades away from an exchange by listing their prices on the NASDAQ Intermarket.

Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS)

Regulation of hedge funds in Europe centers on the concept of

Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS). UCITS are carefully regulated European fund vehicles that allow retail access and marketing of hedge- fund-like investment pools.

universal banking

Germany uses universal banking, which means that German banks can engage in both commercial and investment banking.

aggregation of IRRs

Aggregation of IRRs refers to the relationship between the IRRs of individual investments and the IRR of the combined cash flows of the investments.

borrowing type cash flow pattern

A borrowing type cash flow pattern begins with one or more cash inflows and is followed only by cash outflows.

carried interest

Carried interest is synonymous with an incentive fee or a performance-based fee and is the portion of the profit paid to the GPs as compensation for their services, above and beyond management fees.

catch-up provision

A catch-up provision permits the fund manager to receive a large share of profits once the hurdle rate of return has been achieved and passed.

catch-up rate

A catch-up provision contains a catch-up rate, which is the percentage of the profits used to catch up the incentive fee once the hurdle is met.

claw back

A claw back clause, claw back provision, or claw back option is designed to return incentive fees to LPs when early profits are followed by subsequent losses.

compensation scheme

The compensation scheme is the set of provisions and procedures governing management fees, general partner investment in the fund, carried-interest allocations, vesting, and distribution.

complex cash flow pattern

A complex cash flow pattern is an investment involving either borrowing or multiple sign changes.

continuous compounding

Continuous compounding assumes that earnings can be instantaneously reinvested to generate additional earnings.

deal-by-deal carried interest

Deal-by-deal carried interest is when incentive fees are awarded separately based on the performance of each individual investment.

discrete compounding

Discrete compounding includes any compounding interval other than continuous compounding such as daily, monthly, or annual.

dollar-weighted returns

Dollar-weighted returns are averaged returns that are adjusted for and therefore reflect when cash has been contributed or withdrawn during the averaging period.

fully collateralized

Fully collateralized means that a position (such as a forward contract) is assumed to be paired with a quantity of capital equal in value to the notional principal of the contract.

fund-as-a-whole carried interest

Carried interest can be fund-as-a-whole carried interest, which is carried interest based on aggregated profits and losses across all the investments, or can be structured as deal-by-deal carried interest.

hard hurdle rate

A hard hurdle rate limits incentive fees to profits in excess of the hurdle rate.

hurdle rate

A hurdle rate specifies a return level that LPs must receive before GPs begin to receive incentive fees.

incentive fee

Carried interest is synonymous with an incentive fee or a performance-based fee and is the portion of the profit paid to the GPs as compensation for their services, above and beyond management fees.

interim IRR

The interim IRR is a computation of IRR based on realized cash flows from an investment and its current estimated residual value.

internal rate of return (IRR)

The internal rate of return (IRR) can be defined as the discount rate that equates the present value of the costs (cash outflows) of an investment with the present value of the benefits (cash inflows) from the investment.

lifetime IRR

A lifetime IRR contains all of the cash flows, realized or anticipated, occurring over the investment’s entire life, from period 0 to period T.

log return

A log return is a continuously compounded return that can be formed by taking the natural logarithm of a wealth ratio: Rm=∞ = ln(1 + R) where ln( ) is the natural logarithm function, Rm=∞ is the log return, or continuously compounded return, and m is the number of compounding intervals per year.

management fees

Management fees are regular fees that are paid from the fund to the fund managers based on the size of the fund rather than the profitability of the fund.

modified IRR

The modified IRR approach discounts all cash outflows into a present value using a financing rate, compounds all cash inflows into a future value using an assumed reinvestment rate, and calculates the modified IRR as the discount rate that sets the absolute values of the future value and the present value equal to each other.

multiple sign change cash flow pattern

A multiple sign change cash flow pattern is an investment where the cash flows switch over time from inflows to outflows, or from outflows to inflows, more than once.

notional principal

Notional principal or notional value of a contract is the value of the asset underlying, or used as a reference to, the contract or derivative position.

partially collateralized

A partially collateralized position has collateral lower in value than the notional value.

performance-based fee

Carried interest is synonymous with an incentive fee or a performance-based fee and is the portion of the profit paid to the GPs as compensation for their services, above and beyond management fees.

point-to-point IRR

A point-to-point IRR is a calculation of performance over part of an investment’s life.

preferred return

The term preferred return is often used synonymously with hurdle rate—a return level that LPs must receive before GPs begin to receive incentive fees.

reinvestment rate assumption

The reinvestment rate assumption refers to the assumption of the rate at which any cash flows not invested in a particular investment or received during the investment’s life can be reinvested during the investment’s lifetime.

return computation interval

The return computation interval for a particular analysis is the smallest time interval for which returns are calculated, such as daily, monthly, or even annually.

return on notional principal

The return on notional principal divides economic gain or loss by the notional principal of the contract.

scale differences

Scale differences are when investments have unequal sizes and/or timing of their cash flows.

simple interest

Simple interest is an interest rate computation approach that does not incorporate compounding.

since-inception IRR

A since-inception IRR is commonly used as a measure of fund performance rather than the performance of an individual investment.

soft hurdle rate

A soft hurdle rate allows fund managers to earn an incentive fee on all profits, given that the hurdle rate has been achieved.

time-weighted returns

Time-weighted returns are averaged returns that assume that no cash was contributed or withdrawn during the averaging period, meaning after the initial investment.

vesting

Vesting is the process of granting full ownership of conferred rights, such as incentive fees.

waterfall

The waterfall is a provision of the limited partnership agreement that specifies how distributions from a fund will be split and how the payouts will be prioritized.

ARCH

ARCH (autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity) is a special case of GARCH that allows future variances to rely only on past disturbances, whereas GARCH allows future variances to depend on past variances as well.

autocorrelation

The autocorrelation of a time series of returns from an investment refers to the possible correlation of the returns with one another through time.

autoregressive

Autoregressive refers to when subsequent values to a variable are explained by past values of the same variable.

beta

The beta of an asset is defined as the covariance between the asset’s returns and a return such as the market index, divided by the variance of the index’s return, or, equivalently, as the correlation coefficient multiplied by the ratio of the asset volatility to market volatility: βi = Cov(R m,R i)∕Var(R m) = σim∕σ2 where βi is the beta of the returns of asset i (Ri) with respect to a market index of returns, Rm.

conditionally heteroskedastic

Conditionally heteroskedastic financial market prices have different levels of return variation even when specified conditions are similar (e.g., when they are viewed at similar price levels).

correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient (also called the Pearson correlation coefficient) measures the degree of association between two variables, but unlike the covariance, the correlation coefficient can be easily interpreted.

covariance

The covariance of the return of two assets is a measure of the degree or tendency of two variables to move in relationship with each other.

ex ante returns

Future possible returns and their probabilities are referred to as expectational or ex ante returns.

ex post returns

Ex post returns are realized outcomes rather than anticipated outcomes.

excess kurtosis

Excess kurtosis provides a more intuitive measure of kurtosis relative to the normal distribution because it has a value of zero in the case of the normal distribution: Excess Kurtosis = {E[(R − μ)4 ]∕σ4 } − 3

first-order autocorrelation

First-order autocorrelation refers to the correlation between the return in time period t and the return in the immediately previous time period, t − 1.

GARCH

GARCH (generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) is an example of a time-series method that adjusts for varying volatility.

heteroskedasticity

Heteroskedasticity is when the variance of a variable changes with respect to a variable, such as itself or time.

homoskedasticity

Homoskedasticity is when the variance of a variable is constant.

Jarque-Bera test

The Jarque-Bera test involves a statistic that is a function of the skewness and excess kurtosis of the sample: JB = (n∕6)[S2 + (K2 ∕4)] where JB is the Jarque-Bera test statistic, n is the number of observations, S is the skewness of the sample, and K is the excess kurtosis of the sample.

kurtosis

Kurtosis serves as an indicator of the peaks and tails of a distribution. Kurtosis = E[(R − μ)4 ]∕σ4

leptokurtosis

If a return distribution has positive excess kurtosis, meaning it has more kurtosis than the normal distribution, it is said to be leptokurtic, leptokurtotic, or fat tailed, and to exhibit leptokurtosis.

lognormal distribution

A variable has a lognormal distribution if the distribution of the logarithm of the variable is normally distributed.

mean

The most common raw moment is the first raw moment and is known as the mean, or expected value, and is an indication of the central tendency of the variable.

mesokurtosis

If a return distribution has no excess kurtosis, meaning it has the same kurtosis as the normal distribution, it is said to be mesokurtic, mesokurtotic, or normal tailed, and to exhibit mesokurtosis.

normal distribution

The normal distribution is the familiar bell-shaped distribution, also known as the Gaussian distribution.

perfect linear negative correlation

A correlation coefficient of −1 indicates that the two assets move in the exact opposite direction and in the same proportion, a result known as perfect linear negative correlation.

perfect linear positive correlation

A correlation coefficient of +1 indicates that the two assets move in the exact same direction and in the same proportion, a result known as perfect linear positive correlation.

platykurtosis

If a return distribution has negative excess kurtosis, meaning less kurtosis than the normal distribution, it is said to be platykurtic, platykurtotic, or thin tailed, and to exhibit platykurtosis.

skewness

The skewness is equal to the third central moment divided by the standard deviation of the variable cubed and serves as a measure of asymmetry: Skewness = E[(R − μ)3 ]∕σ3

Spearman rank correlation

The Spearman rank correlation is a correlation designed to adjust for outliers by measuring the relationship between variable ranks rather than variable values.

standard deviation

The square root of the variance is an extremely popular and useful measure of dispersion known as the standard deviation: Standard Deviation = √σ2 = σ

variance

The variance is the second central moment and is the expected value of the deviations squared,

volatility

In investment terminology, volatility is a popular term that is used synonymously with the standard deviation of returns.

average tracking error

Average tracking error refers to the excess of an investment’s return relative to its benchmark. In other words, it is the numerator of the information ratio.

conditional value-at-risk

Conditional value-at-risk (CVaR), also known as expected tail loss, is the expected loss of the investor given that the VaR has been equaled or exceeded.

drawdown

Drawdown is defined as the maximum loss in the value of an asset over a specified time interval and is usually expressed in percentage-return form rather than currency.

information ratio

The information ratio has a numerator formed by the difference between the average return of a portfolio (or other asset) and its benchmark, and a denominator equal to its tracking error: Information Ratio = [E(Rp) − RBenchmark]∕TE where E(Rp) is the expected or mean return for portfolio p, RBenchmark is the expected or mean return of the benchmark, and TE is the tracking error of the portfolio relative to its benchmark return.

Jensen’s alpha

Jensen’s alpha may be expressed as the difference between its expected return and the expected return of efficiently priced assets of similar risk.

M2 approach

The M2 approach, or M-squared approach, expresses the excess return of an investment after its risk has been normalized to equal the risk of the market portfolio.

maximum drawdown

Maximum drawdown is defined as the largest decline over any time interval within the entire observation period.

Monte Carlo analysis

Monte Carlo analysis is a type of simulation in which many potential paths of the future are projected using an assumed model, the results of which are analyzed as an approximation to the future probability distributions.

parametric V aR

A VaR computation assuming normality and using the statistics of the normal distribution is known as parametric VaR.

return on VaR (RoVaR)

Return on VaR (RoVaR) is simply the expected or average return of an asset divided by a specified VaR (expressing VaR as a positive number): RoVaR = E(Rp)∕VaR.

semistandard deviation

Semistandard deviation, sometimes called semideviation, is the square root of semivariance.

semivariance

The semivariance uses a formula otherwise identical to the variance formula except that it considers only the negative deviations. Semivariance is therefore expressed as:

Semivariance = 1/∑[Rt E(R)]2 For all Rt< E(R) where T∗ is the number of negative deviations.

Sharpe ratio

The Sharpe ratio has excess return as its numerator and volatility as its denominator: SR = [E(Rp) − Rf ]∕σp where SR is the Sharpe ratio for portfolio p,E (Rp) is the expected return for portfolio p, Rf is the riskless rate, and σp is the standard deviation of the returns of portfolio p.

shortfall risk

Shortfall risk is simply the probability that the return will be less than the investor’s target rate of return.

Sortino ratio

The Sortino ratio subtracts a benchmark return, rather than the riskless rate, from the asset’s return in its numerator and uses downside standard deviation as the measure of risk in its denominator: Sortino Ratio = [E(Rp) − RTarget ]∕TSSD where E(Rp) is the expected return, or mean return in practice, for portfolio p; RTarget is the user’s target rate of return; and TSSD is the target semistandard deviation (or downside deviation).

target semistandard deviation

Target semistandard deviation (TSSD) is simply the square root of the target semivariance.

target semivariance

Target semivariance is similar to semivariance except that target semivariance substitutes the investor’s target rate of return in place of the mean return.

tracking error

Tracking error indicates the dispersion of the returns of an investment relative to a benchmark return, where a benchmark return is the contemporaneous realized return on an index or peer group of comparable risk.

Treynor ratio

The Treynor ratio has excess return as its numerator and beta as the measure of risk as its denominator: TR = [E(Rp) − Rf ]∕βp where TR is the Treynor ratio for portfolio p; E(Rp) is the expected return, or mean return, for portfolio p; Rf is the riskless rate; and βpis the beta of the returns of portfolio p.

value at risk

Value at risk (VaR) is the loss figure associated with a particular percentile of a cumulative loss function.

well-diversified portfolio

In the field of investments, the term well-diversified portfolio is traditionally interpreted as any portfolio containing only trivial amounts of diversifiable risk.

absolute pricing model

An absolute pricing model attempts to describe a price level based on its underlying economic factors.

arbitrage

Arbitrage is the attempt to earn riskless profits (in excess of the risk-free rate) by identifying and trading relatively mispriced assets.

arbitrage-free model

An arbitrage-free model is a financial model with relationships derived by the assumption that arbitrage opportunities do not exist, or at least do not persist.

asset pricing model

An asset pricing model is a framework for specifying the return or price of an asset based on its risk, as well as future cash flows and payoffs.

bear spread

An option combination in which the long option position is at the higher of two strike prices is a bear spread, which offers bearish exposure to the underlying asset that begins at the higher strike price and ends at the lower strike price.

binomial tree model

A binomial tree model projects possible outcomes in a variable by modeling uncertainty as two movements: an upward movement and a downward movement.

Black-Scholes call option formula

Black-Scholes call option formula expresses the price of a call option as a function of five variables: the price of the underlying asset, the strike price, the return volatility of the underlying asset, the time to the option’s expiration, and the riskless rate.

bull spread

An option combination in which the long option position is at the lower of two strike prices is a bull spread, which offers bullish exposure to the underlying asset that begins at the lower strike price and ends at the higher strike price.

capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) provides one of the easiest and most widely understood examples of single-factor asset pricing by demonstrating that the risk of the overall market index is the only risk that offers a risk premium.

carrying cost

The carrying cost is the cost of maintaining a position through time and includes direct costs, such as storage or custody costs, as well as opportunity costs, such as forgone cash flows.

cash market

The spot market or cash market is any market in which transactions involve immediate payment and delivery: The buyer immediately pays the price, and the seller immediately delivers the product.

collar

A collar generally refers to a long position in an asset combined with a short call option and a long put option on that asset, in which the call option has a higher strike price than the put option.

cost-of-carry model

A cost-of-carry model specifies a relationship between two positions that must exist if the only difference between the positions involves the expense of maintaining the positions.

covered call

A covered call combines being long an asset with being short a call option on the same asset.

elasticity

An elasticity is the percentage change in a value with respect to a percentage change in another value.

empirical model

An empirical model is derived from observation. An example would be a model that recognizes that the returns of some traditional assets are correlated with their market-to-book ratios.

ex ante models

Ex ante models, such as ex ante asset pricing models, explain expected relationships, such as expected returns. Ex ante means “from before.”

ex post model

An ex post model describes realized returns and provides an understanding of risk and how it relates to the deviations of realized returns from expected returns.

excess return

The excess return of an asset refers to the excess or deficiency of the asset’s return relative to the periodic risk-free rate.

Fama-French model

The Fama-French model links the returns of assets to three factors: (1) the market portfolio, (2) a factor representing a value versus growth effect, and (3) a factor representing a small-cap versus large-cap effect.

Fama-French-Carhart model

The Fama-French-Carhart model adds a fourth factor to the Fama-French model: momentum.

financed positions

Financed positions enable economic ownership of an asset without the posting of the purchase price.

forward contract

A forward contract is simply an agreement calling for deferred delivery of an asset or a payoff.

idiosyncratic return

Idiosyncratic return is the portion of an asset’s return that is unique to an investment and not driven by a common association.

idiosyncratic risk

Idiosyncratic risk is the dispersion in economic outcomes caused by investment-specific effects. This section focuses on realized returns and the modeling of risk.

informational market efficiency

Informational market efficiency refers to the extent to which asset prices reflect available information.

lambda

Lambda or omega for a call option is the elasticity of an option price with respect to the price of the underlying asset and is equal to delta multiplied times the quantity (S/c).

market portfolio

The market portfolio is a hypothetical portfolio containing all tradable assets in the world.

market weight

The market weight of an asset is the proportion of the total value of that asset to the total value of all assets in the market portfolio.

multifactor models

Multifactor models of asset pricing express systematic risk using multiple factors and are extremely popular throughout traditional and alternative investing.

naked option

A short option position that is unhedged is often referred to as a naked option.

omega

Lambda or omega for a call option is the elasticity of an option price with respect to the price of the underlying asset and is equal to delta multiplied times the quantity (S/c).

omicron

Omicron is the partial derivative of an option or a position containing an option to a change in the credit spread and is useful for analyzing option positions on credit-risky assets.

option collar

An option collar generally refers only to the long position in a put and a short position in a call.

option combination

An option combination contains both calls and puts on the same underlying asset.

option spread

An option spread (1) contains either call options or put options (not both), and (2) contains both long and short positions in options with the same underlying asset.

option straddle

An option straddle is a position in a call and put with the same sign (i.e., long or short), the same underlying asset, the same expiration date, and the same strike price.

option strangle

An option strangle is a position in a call and put with the same sign, the same underlying asset, the same expiration date, but different strike prices.

protective put

A protective put combines being long an asset with a long position in a put option on the same asset.

put-call parity

Put-call parity is an arbitrage-free relationship among the values of an asset, a riskless bond, a call option, and a put option.

relative pricing model

relative pricing model

rho

Rho is the sensitivity of an option price with respect to changes in the riskless interest rate.

risk reversal

A long out-of-the-money call combined with a short out-of- the-money put on the same asset and with the same expiration date is termed a risk reversal.

semistrong form informational market efficiency

The concept of semistrong form informational market efficiency (or semistrong level) refers to market prices reflecting all publicly available information (including not only past prices and volumes but also any publicly available information such as financial statements and other underlying economic data).

single-factor asset pricing model

A single-factor asset pricing model explains returns and systematic risk using a single risk factor.

spot market

The spot market or cash market is any market in which transactions involve immediate payment and delivery: The buyer immediately pays the price, and the seller immediately delivers the product.

strong form informational market efficiency

The concept of strong form informational market efficiency (or strong level) refers to market prices reflecting all publicly and privately available information.

systematic return

Systematic return is the portion of an asset’s return driven by a common association.

systematic risk

Systematic risk is the dispersion in economic outcomes caused by variation in systematic return

term structure of forward contracts

The term structure of forward contracts is the relationship between forward prices (or forward rates) and the time to delivery of the forward contract.

theoretical model

In a theoretical model, the factors are derived from reasoning based on known facts and relationships.

tradable asset

A tradable asset is a position that can be readily established and liquidated in the financial market, such as a stock position, a bond position, or a portfolio of liquid positions.

weak form informational market efficiency

Weak form informational market efficiency (or weak level) refers to market prices reflecting available data on past prices and volumes.

abstract models

Abstract models, also called basic models, tend to have applicability only in solving real-world challenges of the future.

applied models

Applied models are designed to address immediate real- world challenges and opportunities.

benchmarking

Benchmarking, often referred to as performance benchmarking, is the process of selecting an investment index, an investment portfolio, or any other source of return as a standard (or benchmark) for comparison during performance analysis

cross-sectional models

Cross-sectional models analyze behavior at a single point in time across various subjects, such as investors or investments.

normative model

A normative model attempts to describe how people and prices ought to behave.

panel data sets

Panel data sets combine the two approaches by tracking multiple subjects through time and can also be referred to as longitudinal data sets and cross-sectional time-series data sets.

peer group

The peer group is typically a group of funds with similar objectives, strategies, or portfolio holdings.

performance attribution

Performance attribution, also known as return attribution, is the process of identifying the components of an asset’s return or performance.

positive model

A positive model attempts to describe how people and prices actually behave.

return attribution

Performance attribution, also known as return attribution, is the process of identifying the components of an asset’s return or performance.

time-series models

Time-series models analyze behavior of a single subject or a set of subjects through time.

abnormal return persistence

Abnormal return persistence is the tendency of idiosyncratic performance in one time period to be correlated with idiosyncratic performance in a subsequent time period.

alpha

Alpha refers to any excess or deficient investment return after the return has been adjusted for the time value of money (the risk-free rate) and for the effects of bearing systematic risk (beta).

alpha driver

An investment that seeks high returns independent of the market is an alpha driver.

alternative hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is the behavior that the analyst assumes would be true if the null hypothesis were rejected.

asset gatherers

Asset gatherers are managers striving to deliver beta as cheaply and efficiently as possible, and include the large- scale index trackers that produce passive products tied to well-recognized financial market benchmarks.

backfill bias

Backfill bias fun, or instant history bias, is when the funds, returns, and strategies being added to a data set are not representative of the universe of fund managers, fund returns, and fund strategies.

backfilling

Backfilling typically refers to the insertion of an actual trading record of an investment into a database when that trading record predates the entry of the investment into the database.

backtesting

Backtesting is the use of historical data to test a strategy that was developed subsequent to the observation of the data.

beta creep

Beta creep is when hedge fund strategies pick up more systematic market risk over time.

beta driver

An investment that moves in tandem with the overall market or a particular risk factor is a beta driver.

beta expansion

Beta expansion is the perceived tendency of the systematic risk exposures of a fund or asset to increase due to changes in general economic conditions.

beta nonstationarity

Beta nonstationarity is a general term that refers to the tendency of the systematic risk of a security, strategy, or fund to shift through time.

causality

The difference between true correlation and causality is that causality reflects when one variable’s correlation with another variable is determined by or due to the value or change in value of the other variable.

cherry-picking

Cherry-picking is the concept of extracting or publicizing only those results that support a particular viewpoint.

chumming

Chumming is a fishing term used to describe scattering pieces of cheap fish into the water as bait to attract larger fish to catch.

confidence interval

A confidence interval is a range of values within which a parameter estimate is expected to lie with a given probability.

data dredging

Data dredging, or data snooping, refers to the overuse and misuse of statistical tests to identify historical patterns.

data mining

Data mining typically refers to the vigorous use of data to uncover valid relationships.

economic significance

Economic significance describes the extent to which a variable in an economic model has a meaningful impact on another variable in a practical sense.

equity risk premium

The equity risk premium (ERP) is the expected return of the equity market in excess of the risk-free rate.

equity risk premium puzzle

The equity risk premium puzzle is the enigma that equities have historically performed much better than can be explained purely by risk aversion, yet many investors continue to invest heavily in low-risk assets.

ex ante alpha

Ex ante alpha is the expected superior return if positive (or inferior return if negative) offered by an investment on a forward-looking basis after adjusting for the riskless rate and for the effects of systematic risks (beta) on expected returns.

ex post alpha

Ex post alpha is the return, observed or estimated in retrospect, of an investment above or below the risk-free rate and after adjusting for the effects of beta (systematic risks).

full market cycle

A full market cycle is a period of time containing a large representation of market conditions, especially up (bull) markets and down (bear) markets.

hypotheses

Hypotheses are propositions that underlie the analysis of an issue.

linear risk exposure

A linear risk exposure means that when the returns to such a strategy are graphed against the returns of the market index or another appropriate standard, the result tends to be a straight line.

model misspecification

Model misspecification is any error in the identification of the variables in a model or any error in identification of the relationships between the variables.

null hypothesis

The null hypothesis is usually a statement that the analyst is attempting to reject, typically that a particular variable has no effect or that a parameter’s true value is equal to zero.

outlier

An outlier is an observation that is markedly further from the mean than almost all other observations.

overfitting

Overfitting is using too many parameters to fit a model very closely to data over some past time frame.

passive beta driver

A passive beta driver strategy generates returns that follow the up-and-down movement of the market on a one-to-one basis.

process drivers

Process drivers are beta drivers that focus on providing beta that is fine-tuned or differentiated.

product innovators

At one end of the spectrum are product innovators, which are alpha drivers that seek new investment strategies offering superior rates of risk-adjusted return.

p-value

The p-value is a result generated by the statistical test that indicates the probability of obtaining a test statistic by chance that is equal to or more extreme than the one that was actually observed (under the condition that the null hypothesis is true).

return driver

The term return driver represents the investments, the investment products, the investment strategies, or the underlying factors that generate the risk and return of a portfolio.

selection bias

Selection bias is a distortion in relevant sample characteristics from the characteristics of the population, caused by the sampling method of selection or inclusion.

self-selection bias

If the selection bias originates from the decision of fund managers to report or not to report their returns, then the bias is referred to as a self-selection bias.

significance level

The term significance level is used in hypothesis testing to denote a small number, such as 1%, 5%, or 10%, that reflects the probability that a researcher will tolerate of the null hypothesis being rejected when in fact it is true.

spurious correlation

The difference between spurious correlation and true correlation is that spurious correlation is idiosyncratic in nature, coincidental, and limited to a specific set of observations.

survivorship bias

Survivorship bias is a common problem in investment databases in which the sample is limited to those observations that continue to exist through the end of the period of study.

test statistic

The test statistic is the variable that is analyzed to make an inference with regard to rejecting or failing to reject a null hypothesis.

type I error

A type I error, also known as a false positive, is when an analyst makes the mistake of falsely rejecting a true null hypothesis.

type II error

A type II error, also known as a false negative, is failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false.

conditional correlation

A conditional correlation is a correlation between two variables under specified circumstances.

dependent variable

The dependent variable is the variable supplied by the researcher that is the focus of the analysis and is determined at least in part by other (independent or explanatory) variables.

down market beta

The down market beta, bi,d, is the responsiveness of the fund’s return to the market return when the market return is less than the riskless rate (i.e., when the market’s excess return is negative, or down).

goodness of fit

The goodness of fit of a regression is the extent to which the model appears to explain the variation in the dependent variable.

independent variable

Independent variables are those explanatory variables that are inputs to the regression and are viewed as causing the observed values of the dependent variable.

intercept

The intercept is the value of the dependent variable when all independent variables are zero.

look-back option

A look-back option has a payoff that is based on the value of the underlying asset over a reference period rather than simply the value of the underlying asset at the option’s expiration date.

multicollinearity

Multicollinearity is when two or more independent variables in a regression model have high correlation to each other.

multiple regression model

A multiple regression model is a regression model with more than one independent variable.

negative conditional correlation

When the correlation in the down sample is higher than the correlation in the up sample, it is termed negative conditional correlation.

nonlinear exposure

A nonlinear exposure of a position to a market factor is when the sensitivity of the position’s value varies based on the magnitude of the level of change in the market factor’s value.

nonstationary

The return distributions of hedge funds and hedge fund indices are nonstationary, meaning that return volatilities and correlations vary through time.

positive conditional correlation

Positive conditional correlation of investment returns to market returns is when the correlation in the up sample is higher than the correlation in the down sample. Investors prefer investment strategies with positive conditional correlation, since the strategies offer higher participation in profits during bull markets and lower participation in losses during bear markets.

principal components analysis

Principal components analysis is a statistical technique that groups the observations in a large data set into smaller sets of similar types based on commonalities in the data.

regression

A regression is a statistical analysis of the relationship that explains the values of a dependent variable as a function of the values of one or more independent variables based on a specified model.

residuals

The residuals of the regression, eit, reflect the regression’s estimate of the idiosyncratic portion of asset i’s realized returns above or below its mean idiosyncratic return (i.e., the regression’s estimates of the error term).

rolling window analysis

Rolling window analysis is a relatively advanced technique for analyzing statistical behavior over time, using overlapping subsamples that move evenly through time.

r-squared

The r-squared value of the regression, which is also called the coefficient of determination, is often used to assess goodness of fit, especially when comparing models. In a simple linear regression, the r-squared is simply the squared value of the estimated correlation coefficient between the dependent variable and the independent variable.

serial correlation

Serial correlation is the same as autocorrelation: It is the correlation of a variable, such as return, in one time period (e.g., year) to the same variable in another time period.

simple linear regression

A simple linear regression is a linear regression in which the model has only one independent variable.

slope coefficient

The slope coefficient is a measure of the change in a dependent variable with respect to a change in an independent variable.

stepwise regression

Stepwise regression is an iterative technique in which variables are added or deleted from the regression equation based on their statistical significance.

style analysis

Style analysis is the process of understanding an investment strategy, especially using a statistical approach, based on grouping funds by their investment strategies or styles.

t-statistic

The t-statistic of a parameter is formed by taking the estimated absolute value of the parameter and dividing by its standard error.

t-test

A t-test is a statistical test that rejects or fails to reject a hypothesis by comparing a t-statistic to a critical value.

up market beta

The up market beta, bi,u, is the responsiveness of the fund’s return to the market return when the excess market return is positive, and is estimated as the sum of bi,d and bi,diff.

agency risk

Agency risk is the economic dispersion resulting from the consequences of having another party (the agent) making decisions contrary to the preferences of the owner (the principal).

binomial option pricing

Binomial option pricing is a technique for pricing options that assumes that the price of the underlying asset can experience only a specified upward movement or downward movement during each period.

blue top lots

Blue top lots are at an interim stage of lot completion. In this case, the owner has completed the rough grading of the property and the lots, including the undercutting of the street section, interim drainage, and erosion control facilities, and has paid all applicable fees required.

cap rate

In real estate, the cap rate (capitalization rate) or yield is a common term for the return on assets (7.33% in this example).

contagion

Contagion is the general term used in finance to indicate any tendency of major market movements—especially declines in prices or increases in volatility—to be transmitted from one financial market to other financial markets.

exchange option

An exchange option is an option to exchange one risky asset for another rather than to buy or sell one asset at a fixed exercise or strike price.

favorable mark

A favorable mark is a biased indication of the value of a position that is intentionally provided by a subjective source.

finished lots

Finished lots are fully completed and ready for home construction and occupancy.

intrinsic option value

An intrinsic option value is the greater of $0 and the value of an option if exercised immediately.

land banking

Land banking is the practice of buying vacant lots for the purpose of development or disposition at a future date.

low-hanging-fruit principle

The low-hanging-fruit principle states that the first action that should be taken is the one that reaps the highest benefits over costs.

managed returns

Managed returns are returns based on values that are reported with an element of managerial discretion.

market manipulation

Market manipulation refers to engaging in trading activity designed to cause the markets to produce favorable prices for thinly traded listed securities.

model manipulation

Model manipulation is the process of altering model assumptions and inputs to generate desired values and returns.

natural resources

Natural resources are real assets that have received no or almost no human alteration.

negative survivorship bias

A negative survivorship bias is a downward bias caused by excluding the positive returns of the properties or other assets that successfully left the database.

paper lots

Paper lots refers to sites that are vacant and approved for development by the local zoning authority but for which construction on streets, utilities, and other infrastructure has not yet commenced.

perpetual option

A perpetual option is an option with no expiration date.

political risk

Political risk is economic uncertainty caused by changes in government policy that may affect returns, perhaps dramatically.

pure play

A pure play on an investment is an investment vehicle that offers direct exposure to the risks and returns of a specific type of investment without the inclusion of other exposures.

risk-neutral probability

A risk-neutral probability is a probability that values assets correctly if, everything else being equal, all market participants were risk neutral.

rotation

Rotation is the length of time from the start of the timber (typically the planting) until the harvest of the timber.

selective appraisals

Selective appraisals refers to the opportunity for investment managers to choose how many, and which, illiquid assets should have their values appraised during a given quarter or some other reporting period.

smoothing

Smoothing is reduction in the reported dispersion in a price or return series.

split estate

A split estate is when surface rights and mineral rights are separately owned.

timberland investment management organizations (TIMOs)

Timberland investment management organizations (TIMOs) provide management services to timberland owned by institutional investors, such as pension plans, endowments, foundations, and insurance companies.

time value of an option

The time value of an option is the excess of an option’s price above its intrinsic value.

backwardation

When the slope of the term structure of forward prices is negative, the market is in backwardation, or is backwardated.

basis

The basis in a forward contract is the difference between the spot (or cash) price of the referenced asset, S, and the price (F) of a forward contract with delivery T.

calendar spread

A calendar spread can be viewed as the difference between futures or forward prices on the same underlying asset but with different settlement dates.

contango

When the term structure of forward prices is upward sloping (i.e., when more distant forward contracts have higher prices than contracts that are nearby), the market is said to be in contango.

convenience yield

Convenience yield, y, is the economic benefit that the holder of an inventory in the commodity receives from directly holding the inventory rather than having a long position in a forward contract on the commodity.

cost of carry

In the context of futures and forward contracts, a cost of carry (or carrying cost) is any financial difference between maintaining a position in the cash market and maintaining a position in the forward market.

crisis at maturity

A crisis at maturity is when the party owing a payment is forced at the last moment to reveal that it cannot afford to make the payment or when the party obligated to deliver the asset at the original price is forced to reveal that it cannot deliver the asset.

distant contracts

Contracts with longer times to settlement are often called distant contracts, deferred contracts, or back contracts.

front month contract

On an exchange, the futures contract with the shortest time to settlement is often referred to as the front month contract.

inelastic supply

Inelastic supply is when supplies change slowly in response to market prices or when large changes in market prices are necessary to effect supply changes.

informationally inefficient term structure

An informationally inefficient term structure has pricing relationships that do not properly reflect available information.

initial margin

The collateral deposit made at the initiation of a long or short futures position is called the initial margin.

law of one price

The law of one price states that in the absence of trading restrictions, two identical assets will not persist in trading at different prices in different markets because arbitrageurs will buy the relatively underpriced asset and sell the relatively overpriced asset until the discrepancy disappears.

maintenance margin requirement

A maintenance margin requirement is a minimum collateral requirement imposed on an ongoing basis until a position is closed.

margin call

A margin call is a demand for the posting of additional collateral to meet the initial margin requirement.

marginal market participant

The marginal market participant to a derivative contract is any entity with individual costs and benefits that make the entity indifferent between physical positions and synthetic positions.

marked-to-market

The term marked-to-market means that the side of a futures contract that benefits from a price change receives cash from the other side of the contract (and vice versa) throughout the contract’s life.

normal backwardation

In normal backwardation, the forward price is believed to be below the expected spot price.

normal contango

In normal contango, the forward price is believed to be above the expected spot price.

open interest

The outstanding quantity of unclosed contracts is known as open interest.

perfectly elastic supply

With regard to supply, on one end of the spectrum is a perfectly elastic supply, in which any quantity demanded of a commodity can be instantaneously and limitlessly supplied without changes in the market price.

rolling contracts

Rolling contracts refers to the process of closing positions in short-term futures contracts and simultaneously replacing the exposure by establishing similar positions with longer terms.

storage costs

Storage costs of physical commodities involve such expenditures as warehouse fees, insurance, transportation, and spoilage.

swap

A swap is a string of forward contracts grouped together that vary by time to settlement.

basis risk

Basis risk is the dispersion in economic returns associated with changes in the relationship between spot prices and futures prices.

Bloomberg Commodity Index (BCOM)

The Bloomberg Commodity Index (BCOM), formerly the Dow Jones-UBS Commodity Index, is a long-only index composed of futures contracts on 22 physical commodities.

collateral yield

Collateral yield, is the interest earned from the riskless bonds or other money market assets used to collateralize the futures contract.

commodity-linked note

A commodity-linked note (CLN) is an intermediate-term debt instrument whose value at maturity is a function of the value of an underlying commodity or basket of commodities.

convergence at settlement

Convergence at settlement is the process of the futures price nearing the spot price as settlement approaches, and the two prices matching each other at settlement.

excess return of a futures contract

The return generated exclusively from changes in futures prices is known as the excess return of a futures contract.

fully collateralized position

A fully collateralized position is a position in which the cash necessary to settle the contract has been posted in the form of short-term, riskless bonds.

heterogeneous

A heterogeneous value differs across one or more dimensions.

inflation

Inflation is the decline in the value of money relative to the

value of a general bundle of goods and services.

inflation risk

Inflation risk is the dispersion in economic outcomes caused by uncertainty regarding the value of a currency.

investable index

An investable index has returns that an investor can match in practice by maintaining the same positions that constitute the index.

nominal price

A nominal price refers to the stated price of an asset measured using the contemporaneous values of a currency.

production-weighted index

A production-weighted index weights each underlying commodity using estimates of the quantity of each commodity produced.

real price

A real price refers to the price of an asset that is adjusted for inflation through being expressed in the value of currency from a different time period.

Reuters/Jefferies Commodity Research Bureau (CRB) Index

The Reuters/Jefferies Commodity Research Bureau (CRB) Index is the oldest major commodity index and is currently made up of 19 commodities traded on various exchanges.

roll return

Roll yield or roll return is properly defined as the portion of the return of a futures position from the change in the contract’s basis through time.

roll yield

Roll yield or roll return is properly defined as the portion of the return of a futures position from the change in the contract’s basis through time.

spot return

Spot return is the return on the underlying asset in the spot market.

Standard & Poor’s Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (S&P GSCI)

The Standard & Poor’s Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (S&P GSCI) is a longonly index of physical commodity futures.

brownfield project

Investable infrastructure can also be an existing project, or brownfield project, that has a history of operations and may have converted from a government asset into something privately investable.

double taxation

Double taxation is the application of income taxes twice: taxation of profits at the corporate income tax level and taxation of distributions at the individual income tax level.

downstream operations

Downstream operations focus on refining, distributing, and marketing the oil and gas.

evergreen funds

Unlisted open-end funds, also called evergreen funds, allow investors to subscribe to or redeem from these funds on a regular basis.

excludable good

An excludable good is a good others can be prevented from enjoying.

gates

Gates are fund restrictions on investor withdrawals.

greenfield project

Investable infrastructure can originate as a new, yet-to-be- constructed project, referred to as a greenfield project, which was designed to be investable.

intangible assets

Intangible assets are economic resources that do not have a physical form.

intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is an intangible asset that can be owned, such as copyrighted artwork.

investable infrastructure

Investable infrastructure is typically differentiated from other assets with seven primary characteristics: (1) public use, (2) monopolistic power, (3) government related, (4) essential, (5) cash generating, (6) conducive to privatization of control, and (7) capital intensive with long-term horizons.

midstream operations

Midstream operations and midstream MLPs—the largest of the three segments—process, store, and transport energy and tend to have little or no commodity price risk.

negative costs

Negative costs refer not to the sign of the values but to the fact that these are costs required to produce what was, in the predigital era, the film’s negative image.

present value of growth opportunities (PVGO)

In corporate finance, present value of growth opportunities (PVGO) describes a high value assigned to an investment based on the idea that the underlying assets offer exceptional future income.

privatization

When a governmental entity sells a public asset to a private operator, this is termed privatization.

public-private partnership

A public-private partnership (PPP) occurs when a private sector party is retained to design, build, operate, or maintain a public building (e.g., a hospital), often for a lease payment for a prespecified period of time.

regulatory risk

Regulatory risk is the economic dispersion to an investor from uncertainty regarding governmental regulatory actions.