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the reconciliation of God and humankind through Jesus Christ


Atonement, Example theory of

Beautiful picture and perfect example of the type of dedication we are to practice.
It's a metaphorical concept.
1) Example of total love
2) Inspiration


Atonement, Governmental theory of the

Demonstration of divine justice.
Emphasizes the seriousness of sin.
Forgiveness of their sins, if freely given, would have resulted in undermining the law's authority and effectiveness.


Atonement, Limited

Jesus death is more than sufficient to atone for the sins of the whole world.
For the elect only.


Atonement, Moral- influence theory of

Demonstration of God's love.
Jesus demonstrated to humanity the full extend of God's love for them.
Human attitudes keep them from God.
Healing souls is the real work Jesus came to do.
1) Openness to God
2) Conviction of sin and repentance
3) Inspiration


Atonement, Penal- Substitution theory of

Christ's death was a substitute for our penalty


Atonement, Ransom theory of the

Origen and Gregory of Nyssa.
Victory over the Forces of Sin and Evil.
Standard view of the early history of the church.
Problem: Enslavement to Satan
Satan, rather than God, demanded Christs blood.


Atonement, Unlimited

Jesus died as a propitiation for the benefit of mankind without exception.
Provides a way to salvation for all human beings who would believe


Descent into Hell

Part of the Apostle's Creed.
Seems to be more of a later fabrication of Christian tradition than a biblical doctrine.
difficult to reconcile with Jesus’ promise to the thief on the cross that “today you will be with me in paradise."


Theology of the cross

Belief that the cross is the only source of spiritual knowledge concerning who God is and how God saves.
Contrasted with the theology of glory, which places greater emphasis on human abilities and human reason.