Vocabulary (Chapter 8) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocabulary (Chapter 8) Deck (155):
1

The excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach.

aerophagia

2

A surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures.

anastomosis (plural, anatomeses)

3

An eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance that leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and a refusal to maintain a normal body weight.

anorexia nervosa

4

Medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.

antiemetic

5

Gray-white pits with a red border that appear in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers.

aphthous ulcers

6

An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

ascites

7

The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases.

bariatrics

8

The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestines.

borborygmus

9

An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors, such as self-inducing vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications.

bulimia nervosa

10

A condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.

cachexia

11

An inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reaction to food containing gluten; also known as gluten intolerance.

celiac disease

12

A disorder of the lips characterized by cracklike sores at the corners of the mouth.

cheilosis

13

A radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium.

cholangiography

14

An acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever and jaundice.

cholangitis

15

The surgical removal of the gallbladder.

cholecystectomy

16

Inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones.

cholecystitis

17

An incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones.

choledocholithotomy

18

The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.

cholelithiasis

19

A progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring.

cirrhosis

20

The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon, from the rectum to the cecum.

colonoscopy

21

The surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface.

colostomy

22

A chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon.

Crohn's disease diverticulitis

23

The chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon.

diverticulosis

24

Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.

dyspepsia

25

Difficulty in swallowing.

dysphagia

26

Inflammation of the small intestines caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral or bacterial pathogens.

enteritis

27

The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.

eructation

28

Enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.

esophageal varices

29

An endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract; this includes the esophagus, stomach and upper duodenum.

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

30

The establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.

gastroduodenostomy

31

The upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus; also known as GERD.

gastroesophageal reflux disease

32

The surgical placement of a feeding tube from the exterior of the body directly into the stomach.

gastrostomy tube

33

The vomiting of blood.

hematemesis

34

A laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools; also known as fecal occult blood test.

Hemoccult test

35

Inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection.

hepatitis

36

Blisterlike sores on the lips and adjacent tissue caused by oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters.

herpes labialis

37

An anatomical abnormality in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphram.

hiatal hernia

38

Extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration.

hyperemesis

39

The partial or complete blockage of the small intestines, large intestines or both caused by the stopping of normal peristalsis.

ileus

40

The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.

inguinal hernia

41

A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.

jaundice

42

An abnormal white precancerous lesion (sore) that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek.

leukoplakia

43

The passage of black, tarry and foul-smelling stools that is caused by the presence of digested blood.

melena

44

The condition of weighing two or more times the ideal weight or having the body mass index value greater than 40; also known as severe obesity.

morbid obesity

45

The placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach.

nasogastric intubation

46

An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.

obesity

47

The surgical repair of a cleft palate or cleft lip.

palatoplasty

48

Sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylorior by medications, such as aspirin, that irritate the mucous membranes.

peptic ulcers

49

A series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system.

peristalsis

50

A mushroom growth from the surface of a mucous membrane.

polyp (not all polyp are malignant)

51

A physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum and anus.

proctologist

52

The return of swallowed food into the mouth.

regurgitation

53

An infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contamination with feces.

salmonellosis (also referred to as salmonella)

54

The endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon and possibly a portion of the descending colon.

sigmoidoscopy

55

An inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth.

stomatitis

56

Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer.

trismus

57

A chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestines cause ulcers and irritation.

ulcerative colitis

58

Twisting of the intestines upon itself, causing an obstruction.

volvulus

59

The lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth.

xerostomia

60

Accessory organs of the digestive system.

liver, gallbladder and pancreas

61

Means under the tongue.

sublingual

62

This term refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws.

dentition

63

Means to flow backward (upward from stomach).

regurgitating

64

Refers to a worm-like shape.

vermiform

65

Means upward...
Means downward...
Means curved like the letter "S"...

Ascending
Descending
Sigmoid

66

Holds a doctor of dental surgery (DDS) or doctor of medical dentistry (DMD) degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity.

dentist

67

A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines.

gastroenterologist

68

Specializes in the surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases and repair injuries.

oral or maxillofacial

69

A dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures.

orthodontist

70

A dental specialist who prevents or treats the disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth.

periodontist

71

An open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges.

ulcer

72

Any disease of the mouth due to fungus.

stomatomycosis

73

A type of stomatomycosis that develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control. The symptoms are creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks. This condition occurs most often in infants, older adults w/ weakened immune systems, or individuals who have been taking antibiotics.

oral thrush

74

A birth defect resulting in a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose.

cleft lip

75

Failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus that involves the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate.

cleft palate

76

Involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep.

bruxism

77

An infectious disease that destroys the enamel and dentin of the tooth.

dental caries

78

A soft deposit consisting of bacteria and bacterial by-products that build up on the teeth.

dental plaque

79

Term that means without teeth - describes a situation after the normal permanent teeth have been lost.

edentulous

80

An unpleasant odor coming from the mouth, aka bad breath. Caused by dental disease or respiratory or gastic disorders.

halitosis

81

An deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth.

malocclusion

82

Inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth.

periodontal disease

83

Hardened dental plaque on the teeth, aka tartar. This is dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth.

dental calculus

84

Inflammation of the gums; the earliest stages of periodontal disease.

gingivitis

85

An abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth.

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

86

A condition that occurs when the cells in the epithelial tissue of the esophagus are damaged by chronic acid exposure. Some patient's with chronic GERD develop this complication, which increases the risk of esophageal cancer.

Barrett's esophagus

87

The burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus, aka heartburn.

pyrosis

88

Inflammation of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

gastritis

89

Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining in the stomach and intestines.

gastroenteritis

90

The excessive secretion of gastric juices or mucus in the stomach.

gastrorrhea

91

The loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease.

anorexia

92

An abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances such as dirt that last for at least one month.

pica

93

A condition in which fluid loss exceeds the fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance.

dehydration

94

A lack of proper food or nutrients in the body, due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb and distribute these nutrients.

malnutrician

95

A condition in which the small intestines cannot absorb nutrients from the food that passes through it.

malabsorption

96

The reflex ejection of the stomach contents outward through the mouth.

emesis

97

The urge to vomit.

nausea

98

A common form of cancer that often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon.

colorectal carcinoma

99

A small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ.

diverticulum

100

A condition that occurs when part of the large intestines is partially of completely deprived of blood.

ischemic colitis

101

A temporary impairment (stoppage) of bowel action that is considered to be a normal response to abdominal surgery. It is often present for 24-72 hours, depending on which part of the digestive system was treated.

postoperative ileus

102

A common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea.

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

103

The general name for diseases that cause inflammation and swelling in the intestines. The two most common types are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

inflammatory bowel disease

104

The partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction. This blockage may result from many causes such as scar tissue or a tumor. ie. intestinal adhesions and strangulating obstruction (blood flow to a segment of the intestines is blocked).

intestinal obstruction

105

The telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediate adjacent part.

intussusception

106

A condition that occurs when a portion of the intestines is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off.

strangulated hernia

107

Insufficient oxygen.

ischemia

108

A bacterial infection common to older adults in hospitals or long-term care facilities, typically following the use of antibiotics that wipe out the competing bacteria. This disease can cause diarrhea and can lead to inflammation of the colon.

clostridium difficile

109

A bacterial infection spread through food or water contaminated by human feces.

dysentery

110

Infection caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli transmitted through improperly cooked, contaminated foods.

E. coli

111

A small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that can cause severe pain during a bowel movement.

anal fissure

112

The inability to control the excretion of feces...
Having a bowel movement fewer than 3 times a week...
The abnormally frequent flow of loose or watery stools...
A bulging of the front wall of the rectum into the vagina...

bowel incontinence
constipation
diarrhea
rectocele

113

A condition that occurs when a cluster of enlarged veins, muscles and tissue slip near or through the anal opening.

hemorrhoids

114

A flow of bright red blood in the stool.

hematochezia

115

The presence of excess fat in the stool.

steatorrhea

116

Abnormal enlargement of the liver.

hepatomegaly

117

The most prevalent type of hepatitis. This condition is caused by a highly contagious virus and is transmitted mainly through contamination of food and water with infected fecal matter. A vaccine is available to provide immunity against this virus.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV virus)

118

A bloodborne disease that is transmitted through contact with blood and other bodily fluids that are contaminated with this virus. A vaccine is available to provide immunity against this virus.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV virus)

119

A bloodborne disease that is spread through contact with blood and other bodily fluids that are contaminated with this virus. It is described as a silent epidemic because it can be present in the body for years, and destroy the liver, before any symptoms appear. There is no vaccine available to prevent this form of disease.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV virus)

120

This is a disease of humans that have an accumulation of fat in the liver who drink little or no alcohol. Those with this condition, which usually has no signs or symptoms, is most common in middle-aged individuals who are obese, have type 2 diabetes, have high cholesterol, or have a combination of these.

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

121

A more serious form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation. In some cases, this will progress to cirrhosis, irreversible liver scarring, liver cancer.

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

122

A hard deposit that forms in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components.

gallstone, aka cholelith (plural, calculi)

123

Pain caused by the passage of a gallstone through the bile duct is called....

biliary colic

124

A radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen.

Abdominal computed tomography (CT)

125

A noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very-high frequency sound waves.

abdominal ultrasound

126

The placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestines through bowel activity.

enema

127

Radiographic studies to examine the digestive system. A contrast medium is used to make these structures visible.

Upper GI series and a lower GI series (barium swallow is used for the upper GI series and a barium enema is used for the lower GI series.

128

Specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics.

stool samples

129

A small, flexible tube with a light and lens on the end.

endoscope

130

The visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum.

anascopy

131

A tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows that transmits images of the walls of the small intestine.

capsule endoscopy

132

Medications to relieve indigestion or help peptic ulcers heal by neutralizing stomach acids.

antacids

133

Medications that decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach.

proton pump inhibitors

134

Medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements.

laxatives

135

Fluids administered into a vein to combat the effects of dehydration.

intravenous fluids

136

Treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract dehydration.

oral rehydration therapy

137

The professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus.

dental prophylaxis

138

Refers to the treatment intended to prevent a disease or stop it from spreading.

prophylaxis

139

A surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue.

gingivectomy

140

Specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases and repair injuries.

maxillofacial surgery

141

A surgical removal of all or part of the stomach.

gastrectomy

142

A specialized solution administered intravenously to patients who cannot or should not get their nutrition through eating.

total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

143

Performed to treat morbid obesity by restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested.

bariatric surgery

144

Makes the stomach smaller, usually by stapling a section to create a small pouch, and causes food to bypass the first part of the small intestines. This procedure, which is the most common bariatric surgery, is not reversible.

gastric bypass surgery

145

This procedure involves placing a band around the exterior of the stomach to restrict the amount of food that can enter. This procedure has the advantage of being reversible through the removal of the band.

lap-band adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)

146

Surgical removal of all or part of the colon.

colectomy

147

A surgical incision into the colon.

colotomy

148

Surgical removal of a diverticulum.

diverticulectomy

149

The surgical removal of the ileum.

ileectomy

150

A surgical procedure to create an artificial opening btw an organ and the body surface.

ostomy

151

The surgical creation of an artificial opening btw the ileum and the outside of the abdominal wall.

ileostomy

152

The surgical removal of hemorrhoids.

hemorrhoidectomy

153

The surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.

proctopexy

154

The surgical removal of all or part of the liver.

hepatectomy

155

An option for a patient whose liver has failed for reasons other than liver cancer. Liver tissue regenerates, so a partial liver transplant can be donated - whose blood and tissue types match.

liver transplant