Vocabulary Quiz Flashcards Preview

Political Islam > Vocabulary Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocabulary Quiz Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

qur'an

Holy book of Islam, revealed to Mohammed by the Archangel Gabriel. Literally and unerringly the word of Allah.

2

hadith

Collected sayings of the Prophet Mohammed and select others. Used for studying and forms part of the basis of Islamic law

3

sunnah

recorded episodes from the life of Mohammed, so that others may emulate his actions

4

Five Pillars

zakat (alms for the poor), hajj (once a lifetime pilgrimage to Mecca), shahada (creed: there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet), fasting during Ramadan, salat (prayer five times a day)

5

umma

Muslim community of all believers. Originally referred to the whole community of Muslims in the early years of the religion. Now, with Muslims dispersed, some extremists wish to reunite the umma under one caliphate, as they claim existed after the Prophet's time.

6

Jihad (near and far)

near: internal struggle against impurity.

7

Shia

15% of Muslims. Believe that only those related to Prophet can truly be caliphs. Iraq, Iran gov's,

8

Sunni

85% of Mohammedans. Believe that a council is a legitimate body to decide a successor to the caliphate.

9

Salafi

Very conservative reform movement in Sunni Islam. Takes a fundamentalist, back-to-basics approach. Divided into groups who either believe in a strict interpretation of the

10

wahabi

A tradition of Islam originating from Muhammed Ibn Abdul Wahab in the mid 1700s. Seeks a return to traditional, strict Islamic practice of the Prophet's time. Focus on oneness of God, so things like visiting graves etc. are close to idolatry.

11

Fatwa

a legal opinion issued by a competent authority

12

Imam

Prayer leader. In Sunni Islam, someone who is selected by the local community to lead prayer in a Mosque. This person then has a leadership position within the local Muslim community.

13

Madrassa

Arabic word for an educational institution. Used to refer to a school or college that studies the Islamic religion, teaching primarily this subject.

14

Four rightly guided companions

Last 4 khalifs

15

The battle of Karbala

Took place in Karbala, modern-day Iraq. Took place between Muhammed's grandson Ali was killed by an Umayyad army for not supporting their rule. Commemorated by Muslims, especially the Shi'a, who believe that Muhammed's successors should be members of his family.

16

Shari'a

The corpus of the Islamic legal system, developed over the centuries. Based on medieval interpretations of the qur'an, hadith, and sunna. In Sunni Islam, there are four main schools of thought.

17

Madhab

A school of thought within fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence. Over the years, there have been many schools of thought. Today, 4 remain in Sunni Islam, with more in Shia Islam.

18

Mahdi

The redeemer of Islam. Appears a certain amount of time before the Day of Resurrection. Found in the Hadith. Muhammed's last successor. Fights the false Messiah with Jesus.

19

fiqh

Islamic jurisprudence- the human interpretations of the Sharia. Deals with observance of rituals, morals, and social issues in Islam. Built on and expanded by Itjihad of the ulema over the years.

20

Dawa

proselytizing in Islam. Seen as a religious work or volunteer, community effort. Someone who goes out and spreads Islam by inviting others in a dialogue about the faith. Find other thing about this. Notably lacking political aspirations

21

itjihad

the exercise of independent judgement and interpretation guarding religious matters. danger of bid'a: unfounded, "capricious, whimsical" interpretation. Not for anyone need some level of expertise.

22

taqlid

meaning mindless copying, memorization. An approach to studying Qur'an where you follow the exact meaning of the words of the text.

23

takfir

apostate. Someone who was a Muslim and has renounced God. Considered in Islam to be the worst kind of non-believer. Being a takfir often results in the death sentence.

24

khuffir

non-believer. Anyone who is not a Muslim. Talk about Dhimmis

25

ulaama

scholars, body of scholars. The body of legitimate Islamic scholars, the group

26

hakamiyya

Sovereignty. In Islam, only God has sovereignty. This concept takes on new importance in political Islam. In Democracy, the people are sovereign, which is illegal under Islam.

27

jahaliyya

"ignorance." word used in Islamic scholarship to describe the period before Gabriel revealed Islam to Mumhammed. Now also an Islamic political term referring to contemporary rulers of Muslim countries, who are seen as not really Muslim. Forms basis for calling for Islamism.

28

Orientalism

a scholarly view in which non-european cultures are seen as "others", a matter of West vs Rest. Huntington, Pipes, Bernard Lewis all called orientalist.

29

caliphate- myth of the golden age

Myth that Muslims can return to the glorious victorious caliphate of Muhammed's day. A caliphate is a Islamist state ruled by a caliph, khalifa, successor. Ruled as a religious state

30

din w'dalah

mosque to state, a slogan of the muslim brotherhood