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4T CDCs Chemistry > Volume 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Volume 2 Deck (573)
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1

The term that best describes the water found within cells is

intracellular water.

2

An example of calculated supplemental data is

the anion gap.

3

A trend in high or low anion gaps indicates that

there may be a consistent error in at least one of the analytes.

4

The ultimate regulators of sodium levels in the body are the

kidneys through reabsorption and excretion.

5

Hemolyzed samples for potassium analysis should be avoided because

intracellular potassium will be released, affecting results.

6

In the disease cystic fibrosis, the concentration of chloride ions in sweat is

elevated due to a genetic defect.

7

If you discover that a sample for bicarbonate analysis has been left open in a test tube rack, the result could be

falsely decreased due to CO2 escaping into the air.

8

Because the lungs and kidneys regulate acid-base balance, a patient with disorders affecting these organs will be followed using

blood gas analysis.

9

What happens during internal respiration when the partial pressure of oxygen is 90 mm Hg and carbon dioxide is about 40 mm Hg?

Oxygen moves into the cell and carbon dioxide moves out of the cell.

10

Blood gas samples should be collected only by

providers or specially trained personnel.

11

What do you do if you receive a blood gas sample with an air bubble in it?

Annotate the final report with the condition the sample was in when it arrived in the laboratory.

12

The importance of pH in the blood is critical because

a pH outside of 6.8 to 7.8 is incompatible with life.

13

Which one of the following substances is a buffer found in large amounts and has its concentrations within the body controlled by the lungs and the kidneys?

Bicarbonate.

14

The lungs help maintain body pH by converting carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water, which

are then expelled during exhalation.

15

What are the body processes that water and electrolytes work hand-in-hand to accomplish?

Water balance, osmolality, electrolyte balance, pH balance, and blood gas exchange.

16

What are intracellular and extracellular water?

Intracellular water is found within the cells. Extracellular water is water found outside of the cells.

17

What is the concept of water balance?

Water balance is keeping the intracellular and extracellular compartments of water at a constant volume. This is done by ensuring that the rate of water loss is equal to the rate of water intake.

18

List the factors that regulate water balance?

It’s regulated by the body’s thirst mechanism, anti-diuretic hormone produced by the posterior pituitary gland, and excretion or reabsorption of water by the kidneys.

19

What are the six causes of fluid imbalances?

Vomiting.
Excessive urination. Sweating.
Diarrhea.
Bleeding.
Exudation.

20

In chemistry, the term electrolytes refer to what analytes?

Sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate.

21

15. (204) Respiratory acidosis means the blood pH is

decreased due to a respiratory problem.

22

16. (204) A tourniquet, used during venous blood collection, affects pH readings by causing

the blood to stagnate, resulting in a decrease of venous pO2.

23

17. (205) Decreased levels of calcium are often associated with tetany,

a hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles.

24

18. (205) Increased calcium levels are known as

hypercalcemia.

25

19. (205) Hemolyzed samples should not be used for phosphate analysis because

red blood cells contain high concentrations of organic phosphate esters.

26

20. (206) The main dietary sources of magnesium are

meat and green vegetables.

27

21. (206) One of the more serious complications of magnesium deficiency is the effect on the

cardiovascular system.

28

22. (206) Analysis of which one of the following analytes is often requested to track patients with manic-depressive illnesses?

Lithium.

29

23. (207) All test methods for serum iron measure

iron carried by transferrin.

30

24. (207) Iron levels in the body are regulated by

absorption.