Flashcards in Voting Behaviour and Participation Deck (53)
What is the structure of an indirect democracy in the UK
House of Commons, which voters elects representatives to act on their behalf
Government, formed by largest party in the House
Devolved bodies, Scottish Parliament
What are the advantages of a direct democracy
Allows public to decide on everything
Difficult for corruption to influence decisions
What are the disadvantages of a direct economy?
It makes the decision making process slow and inefficient
It's extremely expensive
What are the advantages of an indirect democracy?
They are better suited to modern democracies
The decision making process is much faster and more efficient than in a direct democracy
It's less expensive
The representative of the people are usually experts
What's the disadvantages of an indirect democracy
It can be corrupt
Public may not get what they want
What are the main features of 'liberal democracies'
The right to oppose
Popular control of policy markers
Political equality (One person, one vote)
Law making by elected representatives
What does pluralism mean?
It is the existence of diverse centres of economic and political power, involving a choice of political parties and the existence of many pressure groups
What is a Limited Government?
Checks and limitations on the power of the government to secure essential liberties
Civil liberties and rights
The existence of essential public freedoms often written in law (e.g. The freedoms of assembly and speech, the right to vote and to a fair trial)
Non-secretive government that can be seen as fair and accountable
What is an independent judiciary
A just, impartial and independence legal system based on equal access to the law
What does the term 'free and open media'
Newspaper and broadcasting being allowed to operate freely without government pressure
What is forced/ manipulated participation?
Where people are forced by law or by police intervention to vote
Examples of where this happens
Examples of elections
Local council elections
Members of devolved assemblies
Members of European Parliament
Over 75% and some over 90%, w/ exceptionally high figures have compulsory voting laws
What do you have to be to qualify as a voter in the UK
Qualifying Commonwealth or citizen of the Republic of Ireland
UK Turnout Figures
High turnout election examples
October 1974- 72.8
Why is turnout so low?
People are becoming increasingly involved in pressure groups so they are not voting
People don't necessarily trust politicians ability to make changes and their reliability (MPs Expenses Scandal)
The move to the centre ground after New Labour, has
Social disengagement, lack of community/ national pride, people are generally more individual
What is the structure of a direct democracy in Ancient Athens
There's an executive council which is chosen directly from the electorate (500 men over 30 who serve for 1 year period)
People's assembly which decides issues of peace and war (Ekklesia)
People's Court which is a selection from a panel of volunteers on a case by case basics
Information about Crewe's survey in the UK/US (1996)
80% of British pupils engaged in little to no political discussion
Information about Parry et al (1992)
Surveyed 1500 people and found 75% were politically active to some degree and the rest were inactive
23.2% were involved in a variety of political activities apart from voting
51% said their only involvement was voting in elections
25.85% were almost inactive
Which Age group is most likely to vote?
The grey vote, they are the most reliable voters
What ethnicities are least likely to participate?
Africans and Caribbeans
What areas are most likely to participate
What social class is most likely to participate?
Professional and business people, those Ho are better educated because they perceive that political activity affects their everyday lives unlike uneducated and lower classes
What is a 40:30:30 society?
Used to describe a society in which 40% are in secure employment, 30% is in insecure employment (self-employed and part-time workers) and the remaining 30% are socially and economically marginalised, jobless or working for poverty wages
What is the A/B class?
Higher/lower managerial, professional and administrative positions, this is 28% of the population