W1 Ch 1: all vocab Flashcards Preview

PSY/201 UOPX > W1 Ch 1: all vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in W1 Ch 1: all vocab Deck (56):
1

scientific method

the approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest

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Behavioral genetics

studies the inheritance of traits related to behavior

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theories

broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest

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behavioral neuroscience

Examines the biological basis of behavior

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hypothesis

a prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested

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Clinical psychology

deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

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operational definition

the translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed

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Clinical neuropsychology

focuses on the relationship between biological and psychological disorders

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descriptive research

research designed to systematically investigate a person, group, or patterns of behavior

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cognitive psychology

focuses on the study of higher mental processes

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archival research

research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis

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counseling psychology

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems

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naturalistic observation

research in which an investigator simply observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation

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cross-cultural psychology

investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups

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survey research

research in which people chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes

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developmental psychology

examines how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death

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case study

an in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people

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educational psychology

concerned with teaching and learning processes, such as the relationship between motivation and school performance

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variables

behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way

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environmental psychology

considers the relationship between people and their physical environment

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correlational research

research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or "correlated"

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evolutionary psychology

considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors

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experiment

the investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation

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experimental psychology

studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world

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experimental manipulation

the change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation

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forensic psychology

focuses on legal issues, such as determining the accuracy of witness memories

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treatment

the manipulation implemented by the experimenter

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health psychology

explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease

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experimental group

any group participating in an experiment that receives treatment

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industrial/organizational psychology

concerned with the psychology of the workplace

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control group

a group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment

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personality psychology

focuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another

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independent variable

the variable that is manipulated by an experimenter

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program evaluation

focuses on assessing large-scale programs to determine whether they are effective in meeting their goals

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dependent variable

the variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable

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psychology of women

focuses on issues such as discrimination against women and the causes of violence against women

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random assignment to condition

a procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of chance and chance alone

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school psychology

devoted to counseling children in elementary and secondary schools who have academic or emotional problems

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replication

research that is repeated, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and group of participants, to increase confidence in prior findings

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social psychology

the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others

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informed consent

a document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve

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sport psychology

applies psychology to athletic activity and exercise

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experimental bias

factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment

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neuroscience perspective

the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions

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placebo

a false treatment, such as a pill, "drug," or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient

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psychodynamic perspective

the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control

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behavioral perspective

the approach that suggests that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study

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cognitive perspective

the approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world

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humanistic perspective

the approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior

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psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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structuralism

Wundt's approach, which focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities

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introspection

a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in details what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus

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functionalism

an early approach to psychology that concentration on what the mind does - the functions of mental activity - and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments

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gestalt psychology

an approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense rather than on the individual elements of perception

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free will

the idea that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made freely by the individual

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determinism

the idea that people's behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control