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Flashcards in warm ups and cool downs Deck (35):

what are warm ups and cool downs

involve completing a series of exercises, usually incorporating some stretching exercises

- it should be suited to the activity or session that is being conducted
- consist of low intensity movements
- they aid in performance and recovery


what are the 5 benefits of a warm up

gradually increase body and muscle temperature

increase blood and oxygen supply

increase flexibility

increase excitement levels

increase proprioception


what are the 4 benefits of a cool down

return heart rate, breathing and blood pressure to nor al

restoration of rage of motion and flexibly

removal of waste products form muscle tissue

reduction of exercise included muscle spasm


preferred timing and duration of a warm up and cool down

it is important to establish and explain the preferred timing and duration of warmup and cool downs according to the sport activity

performance parameters for the event

areas of the body to cover

holding times



what should a warm up consist of

consist of exercise and stretching

prepare specific joints and muscles for extra stress it will experience during exercise

intensity should build form start to finish

should generally take 10-15 minutes

will consist of three components


what is the first component of a warm up

a low intensity rhythmic activity to increase body temperature and heart rate. this many include a short jog, cycling, skipping. this low intensity activity should last for no more the 5 minutes.


what is the second component of a warmup

stretching to increase flexibility and rage of movement.
stretches should be competed for the muscle groups that will most be used during a session

three main methods of stretching are



three types of stretches

static- this is holding a challenging position for 10 -30 seconds and related 2-3 times

dynamic- this involves gradually increasing speed, range of motion and movement through sets of controlled swinging type movements .they should be performed in sets of 8-20 reps

PNF the involves contracting and relaxing muscles against a resistance.most effective with a partner. should be held for 101-5 sec ad then relax for 23 sec


what is warmup component 3

sport specific game or activity where athletes perform movements to be used during the session. should simulate competition movements at a low intensity.


what should a cool down consist of

incorporate an element of stretching exercises with the aim of promoting recovery.
should be sport specific
can be Broken into two sections active and passive


what are the two sections of cool down

active cool down and passive cool down


what is a active cool down

keeping the body moving after the main activity at a Lower intensity and continuing to lower this intensity until coming to a compete stop.

this technique stops blood from pooling in the muscles and allows blood to return to the heart, assisting in the removal of lactic acid from the muscles


what is a passive cool down

this is a stretching component of the cool down. it is important both before and after the activity as it assists with preventing muscle soreness and tightness. it may involve the use of static, dynamic and PNF stretching techniques but should be performed at a lower intensity


what are some recovery techniques

there are a number of techniques that can be used to further assist cool down

ice baths and or cold water immersion - helps prevent muscle soreness from small fibre tears

risks associated with it are pain, breathing difficulties, shock and potential hypothermia

hot and cold showers

refuelling and hydration


what are contraindications and precautions and what can they include

these create to anything that may stop or interest with an athletes ability to complete the warmup
contraindications may include

acute inflammation
recent muscle injury


what is organisational polices and procedures

what are some examples of these

these policies are in place to protect both the instructor and the athletes from potential hazards, injury and confidentially legal issues and to protect the instructors reputations.

when conducting warm ups and cool downs an instructor needs to be aware of the following policies and procedures

work health and safety - risk assessments need to be done regularly

eg ensuring that warm ups and cool downs are done properly to prevent bad technique and lead to injury

confidentiality of participant information - privacy act
eg medical info leaked of a afl player they could target their strengths and weaknesses to gain on field advantage

codes of ethics

code of conduct

sports trainer associated guidelines


what is best practice

best practice is the method, procedure, process or techniques of doing something most likely to achieve the best outcome.

it is often recommendations that come from experts or elders I the particular field,

highlighting the 'best' way to do things.


what is biomechanics

biomechanics is the law that relates to how the human body moves including the coordination of skeletal muscles and bones, their force and gravity.


what are the basic principles of biomechanics that an instructor should be aware of

centre of gravity

base of support



major muscle actions


what is the centre of gravity

centre of gravity is the point at which all parts of an object are balanced. this point changes when a person moves their body in different directions.

an athlete can work out their centre of gravity by working on their core muscles and lower body muscles


what is base of support

base of support is the area of an object or person that is in contact with the ground.

the larger the base support is, the more stable or balanced the object is.

base of support is vital to consider body position when participating and exciting specific skills.


what are fulcrums

is the fixed point at which a lever rotates or pivots

In the human body, joint is a fulcrum

can sometimes be referred to as the axis of rotation


what are levers

a lever is a rigid structure that is capable of transmitting or erecting a force

in the human body our bones are levers that are capable of such movements


what are the classes of levers

there are three classes of levers that an instructor will need to be a ware of

first class lever

second class lever

third class lever


what are fist class levers

the y have the fulcrum between the effort and the load (resistance) examples include a seesaw


what are second class levers

they have the load ( resistance) between the fulcrum and the effort examples include a wheelbarrow or pushups


what are third class levers

they have the effort between the fulcrum and the load
examples include a bicep curl


what is the load

the load is the resistance that is applied to the muscle


Major muscle actions

origin: stationary end of muscle attachment

insertion: mobile end of muscle attachment

belly: thicker middle region


muscle: bicep Origin: scapula Insertion: radius and ulna

muscle: deltoid Origin: clavicle Insertion: humerus

muscle: gluteus maximous Origin: pelvis Insertion: femur


what happens as a muscle contracts

as a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. movement occurs at the joint between the origin and insertion


what are the key component in order to create movement in the muscle (muscle actions)

in order to create movement, muscles work in groups

agonist (prime mover) contracting muscle

antagonist relaxing muscle

synergist helps steady the movement and stabilise joint activity


what are some examples of agonist and antagonist

pictorial/ latissimus dorsi

biceps and triceps

quadriceps and hamstrings


what are some arousing techniques to increase and decrease arousal


positive encouragement
inspiration (video music game highlights ect)


lighting the mood with jokes or fun activity

focus on particular skills or tasks

deep breathing


what is reviewing and modifying programs

after conducting a warm up and cool down an instructor should review the program in consolation with appropriate personal and athletes

an instructor should also allocate time to sue a rage of self reflection methods to identify any potential areas for improvement


what are some self reflection methods after conducting a warm up or cool down

self reflection methods include

diary and journal