Flashcards in Wars of the Roses - Henry VII Deck (15)
What colour rose represented the:
Tudor rose was white in the red
Who were the claimants all related to?
Each other (ha). All descendants of Edward III
Give the monarchy from Edward III to Henry VII
1) Edward III - 1327 - 1377
2) Richard II - 1377 - 1399 - LANCASTRIAN, dodgy now:
3) Henry IV - 1399 - 1413 - L
4) Henry V - 1413 - 1422 - L
5) Henry VI - 1422 - 1461 - L Seen as a bad king
6) Edward IV - 1461 - 1470 - YORKIST overthrew Henry
7) Henry VI - 1470 - 1471 (died on throne this time)
8) Edward IV - 1471 - 1483 ("")
9) Edward V - 1483 Y (missing? III may have killed him)
10) Richard III - 1483 - 1485 - Y
11) Henry VII - 1485 - 1509
11 Kings (9 different) in 158 Years
6 other kings in Henry VII's lifetime (born 1457)
Since what year was the throne regularly changing hands?
1399, as Richard II died with no children, went to his nephew Henry IV
Why was Richard III seen as a bad (unethical) king?
Because he might have killed his nephews (Edward V) to keep the throne. They were imprisoned and "disappeared." He was only supposed to be king until Edward came of age - regent
What was the name of the final battle of the Wars of the Roses, where Richard III was killed?
The Battle of Bosworth, 22nd August 1485
What was the turning point in the Battle of Bosworth?
When Lord Stanley decided to fight on Henry's side.
Who was Lord Stanley?
Henry's stepfather, who owned a lot of soldiers & was powerful. But being "related" didn't mean he had to support Henry
Henry VII was the last king in England to kill for the throne. True or false?
Describe briefly the Battle of Bosworth
22nd of August, 1485
Richard III (Y) had around 10,000 men, Henry (L) still lacked Lord Stanley & brothers' support
Richard on the top of a hill, Henry at the bottom
Lasted around 3-4 hours
Turning point when Lord Stanley decided to fight for Henry
Richard III was killed, and Henry was given the crown
How did Henry VII have a claim to the throne? (family)
Through his mother (daughter of John Beaufort, grandson of Edward III), but it was weak.
His mother Margaret of Beaufort was born through an affair, and Henry may have been too
What was Henry's early life like?
He was a fugitive - when Henry was 14, the House of York was on the throne with Edward IV in 1471 after the Battle of Tewkesbury. Many lancastrians died or were executed.
Henry fled to France with his uncle Jasper, living as a fugitive in the Duchy of Brittany
He was NOT brought up to be a king
Once Henry won the battle, what were his aims?
1) Establish & secure his right to the throne
2) Strengthen royal government through better control of the nobility
3) Strengthen then monarchy & kingdom for the future by ensuring a strong financial foundation
What is bastard feudalism?
Over mighty subjects able to take the law into their own hands. Nobles able to use retainers (paid person) in return for military service - so they can own armies