Why is water very important?
- It is an essential nutrient: required to live
- Effects the textural characteristics of water and makes food enjoyable. Viscosity, gel formation, snap, crispness are all affected by water. Palatability and digestibility depend on amount of water present
- The extent to which other molecules attract water and bind them is one of the major determinants of strucural and sensory attributes
- Product quality is determined by the water molecules beacuse is is important for microbal growth and determines the rate of reaction
Water molecules in food and effect in microorganisms?
- Water determines whether particular microbes can survive/grow/multiply.
- Knowledge of this can help control those organisms causing spoilage or food poisoning
- Can be used in fermentation
Waters effects on enzyme and non-enzymatic reactions?
- Water is important in the deterioration of food quality caused by a wide variety of enzymatic and non-enzymatic chemical reactions
Water and it effects on stability of foods?
- Water molecules provide the enviro that allows many chemical reactions to occur by bringing together reactant molecules
- Can have desirable and non desirable effects on sensory and nutritional significance
- Generally food molecules are more stable at low water levels
- However, Some hydrophobic molecules react more readily at low water contents
The structure of water?
- Polar (the 4 pairs of e- repel each other causing the tetrahedral structural
- Hydrogen bonding between water and other molecules
Types of water in food?
Although molecules are chemically identical there are a number of distinct categories of how water may occur in food. The are 4 categories
3 Categories of water in food?
- Free water
- Constitutional water
- Vicinal or Monolayer layer water
What is free water?
- Is mobile and can be readily removed during processing
What is constitutional water?
- Are difficult to remove because they are part of the internal structure of other molecules like proteins