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Flashcards in Water On The Land Deck (83)
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1

Source

Where the river begins

2

Mouth

Where the river joins the sea (e.g. estuary/delta)

3

Tributary

A smaller river which joins a larger river channel

4

Confluence

Where a tributary joins a river

5

Drainage basin

Area of land drained by a single river system

6

Watershed

Edge of drainage basin (often high ridge of land)

7

Long profile

Entire length of the river from source to mouth

8

Cross profile

Cut-through or cross-section of the river at any one point. In the upper course the cross profile is a steep side v shaped valley, with a small narrow river. In the middle course it is less steep sided, with a wider floodplain and a wider river channel. In the lower course the cross profile is a very flat floodplain with a very wide river channel

9

Discharge

Volume of water being carried in the river channel (measured in cumecs - m3/s)

10

Erosion

Breakdown of rock and sediment by moving forces

11

Vertical erosion

Downward erosion of the river channel caused by the downward pull of gravity on the river water. This occurs in the upper course and creates a steep sided cross profile

12

Lateral erosion

Sideways erosion of the river channel. This occurs in the middle and lower course and creates a very wide, flat cross profile

13

Abrasion

River’s flow throws sand and sediment against the river bed and banks

14

Hydraulic action

River’s flow erodes the bed and banks

15

Attrition

Particles carried in the river rub against each other and are worn down

16

Corrosion

The action of acids and salts in river water corroding the bed and banks.

17

Transportation

The movement of sediment from one place to another.

18

Traction

The rolling of larger boulders on the river bed.

19

Saltation

The bouncing of smaller boulders on the river bed.

20

Suspension

When sediment is carried in the body of water.

21

Solution

When sediment is dissolved in the water.

22

Deposition

The dumping of the sediment load carried in the waves. Encouraged by a reduction in flow, a fall in discharge or an obstruction in flow. .

23

Bedload

The sediment that is too large to be carried in the water and is found on the river bed (moved by traction and saltation at times of high flow)

24

Angular bedload

The bedload that is still very jagged – has not been smoothed via erosion (found in the upper course)

25

Suspended load

The sediment that is carried in the water (moved by suspension and solution)

26

Landforms of erosion

Landforms created by the erosive power of the river (e.g. V shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, waterfalls, gorges). Usually found in the upper course of the river.

27

V-shaped valley

Vertical erosion in the upper course creates these steep sided, narrow valleys. The river cuts down,and weathering and mass movement work on the valley sides. Over time steep sides form.

28

Interlocking spurs

Areas of hard, resistant rock that the river flows around – found in the upper course (not to be confused with meanders which are found in the flat lower course)

29

Waterfall

A steep drop in the river’s course. Formed where a band of resistant rock overlays a band of less resistant rock. The softer rock is eroded by more, causing the undercutting of the harder rock. Abrasion and hydraulic power create a plunge pool, which over time undermines the harder rock. The hard cap rock eventually collapses and the waterfalls retreats back forming a gorge.

30

Gorge

A retreating waterfall creates a steep sided gorge – a extremely steep sided cutting.