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Flashcards in Changing Urban Environment Deck (51)
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A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and there is a reduction in urban living)


Rural-urban migration

A process in which people move from countryside to towns


Push-pull factors

Factors that push people away from or draw people to an area


Natural increase

When birth rate is higher than death rate, so the population increases.


Land use

The type of buildings or other features that are found in the area e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads and parks.



Central business district is the main shopping and service area in a city. The CBD is usually found within the centre of the city so that it is easily accessible.



The purpose of a particular area, e.g. residential, business, commercial, industry


Inner city

The area around the CBD – usually built before 1918 in the UK



The area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as they reach the edge of the city


Rural-urban fringe

The area where the suburbs merge into the countryside e.g. Abbotts Leigh, near Bristol



A person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address, sharing a living room.


Brownfield site

Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.


Greenfield site

Land that has never been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built up area.


Urban decay

When an urban area goes into decline – this has happened in the UK’s inner city areas over the last 50 years.



Improving an area – many schemes have been put in place to regenerate the UK’s inner city areas


Urban Development Corporations (UDC's)

Set up in the 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment e.g. London Docklands Development Corporation.


City Challenge

A strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development e.g. City Challenge Hulme, Manchester


Sustainable communities

A community offering housing, employment and recreation & leisure facilities all the same local area. The community is in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life e.g. New Islington Millennium Village, Manchester


Quality of life

How good a person’s life is as measured by factors like quality of housing, environmental quality, access to education, health care, security and social wellbeing.



When traffic becomes too great for transport networks leading to air pollution, noise pollution, health problems and discolouration of buildings.


Park and ride schemes

A bus service that runs from car parks in the suburbs to key places in the inner city and CBD. Reduces congestion. Costs are kept low to encourage people to use the scheme e.g. York


Congestion charge

When a charge is paid to enter the CBD of a major city e.g. London congestion charge zone



The rich, diverse range of religions, cultures and ethnicities in a single area



Occurs when people of a particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups. Often occurs because gathering together offers support and safety. Often an ethnic group will gather near a place of worship and to be close to specialist facilities e.g. Halal food suppliers.


Multicultural mix

When ethnic groups are encouraged to mix, through mixed schools, active community projects and improving literacy/English speaking skills of ethnic groups e.g. Leeds


CBD regeneration

Regenerating the CBD to attract business and economic wealth back into the heart of the city e.g. Broadmead BID and Cabot’s Circus, Bristol


Squatter settlements

Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people of any materials they can find on land that does not belong to them. Such settlements have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. favela in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns e.g. Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya


Informal sector

That part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. tackling in washing, mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures.


Assisted Self Help (ASH)

This is where local authorities help squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitation etc


Site and service

Occurs where land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitation, electricity and basic track layout are supplied before any building by residents begins.