Flashcards in Weather and Society Deck (66)
Name Strengths/Weaknesses of Secondary Analysis
Strengths: Don't need to personally gather the info., often times inexpensive, data can be quantitative or qualitative.
Weakness: May have limited access to the data, sometimes may be expensive, and don't know how data was gathered (was it gathered scientifically?).
Name Strengths/Weaknesses of Surveys
Strengths: Can be gathered over large sample sizes, conclusions are generalizable, can be designed so that data can be easily statistically analyzed.
Weakness: May be expensive and time consuming to analyze, you only get answers to questions explicitly state in the survey, and there are often low response rates which effects representativeness.
Name Strengths/Weaknesses of Focus Groups
-Get multiple responses at once
-You can explore a topic by delving deeper into the respondents answers
-the group may come up with new ideas that the researcher hadn’t considered
- Analyzed videotape may provide additional information through body language analysis
-sometimes a couple participants may take over the entire group
-Transcribing process can be very time consuming
-Usually the conclusions are not generalizable
-Responses may vary greatly from one group to the next
Name Strengths/Weaknesses of Interviews
-A lot of detail can be derived from the use of open-ended questions
-The interview can change course depending on the interviewee
-Can be inexpensive
-qualitative data gathered may be very time consuming to analyze
-Conclusions may not be generalizable.
Name Strengths/Weaknesses of Observations
Behaviors can be observed at the time they occur and interactions between people can be evident
Data gathering and post analysis can be very time consuming
Presence of the observer may alter the behavior of those being observed
Name Strengths/Weakness of Experimental Methods
-well-designed experiment can focus solely on the effects of specific variables
-Often needs only a small sample size
-Experiment often takes place in a non-natural environment
-It may be difficult to construct proper experimental conditions
Name the social science methods used to study Weather and Society. (Hint 6)
Secondary Analysis, Surveys, Focus Groups, Interviews, Observations, Experimental Methods.
What is a hueristic?
This is a strategy employed to processes information received.
Name the hueristics and biases which influence people's risk perception. (Hint 5)
Availability, Optimistic Bias, Representativeness, Affect, Gamblers Fallacy.
Describe Availability (hueristic/bias).
This is the when a person perceives the probability of an event based upon how easily instances of that event can be recalled. For example, if one was able to recall many instances of robbery in their neighborhood, they perceive that they have a high probability of being robbed.
Describe Optimistic Bias (hueristic/bias).
This is when a person perceives that they are less susceptible to a risk than other people are.
Describe Representativeness (hueristic/bias).
this concerns how similar an event is to the corresponding event they have stored in their memory. For example, if a person imagines good doctors as being older people, then if treated by a young doctor, the person may not believe they are receiving adequate treatment.
Describe Affect (hueristic/bias).
This concerns how vividly we store information. In general, memories that have been stored as vivid imagery illicit an emotional response when recalled. IE, vivid imagery tends to evoke a higher affective response.
Describe Gamblers Fallacy (hueristic/bias).
This is an incorrect thought process - probably from a lack of understanding of probability. An example would be the idea that two 100 year floods could not occur over a short time scale.
Decribe (Define) the cultural theory of risk perception.
tells us that how people perceive risk is at least in part a product of the culture they come from. Essentially, embedded in culture are certain beliefs that influence how people perceive risk on an individual level.
Name the world views associated with the cultural theory of risk perception. (Hint 4)
Hierarchists, Individualists, Egalitarians, and Fatalists.
Describe the prototypical hierarchists
most fear social deviance, which threatens the structure of status quo. They call for the active management of risk by ‘experts,’ in whom they place great trust.
Describe the prototypical individualist
most fear restrictions on their autonomy, such as government regulation. They promote market-based strategies that maintain their autonomy and provide opportunities for personal gain, believing that the ‘invisible hand’ – of self-interested actors seeking to maximize their own personal gain – leads to optimal social results.”
Describe the prototypical egalitarian
most concerned about injustice in the distribution of risk costs and benefits, tolerate or celebrate social deviance and diversity, and view technology with suspicion. They often promote participatory, democratic, and consensus-based decision-making that includes all affected parties as equals.
Describe the prototypical fatalist
Believes that they have little control over what happens and that natural events are “Acts of God.”
What factors influence response to hazards (e.g. hurricane evacuation, tornado sheltering, driving through flood) ?
Desirable behavior depends on what the hazard is, actions encouraged before the event occurs, and when the event is expected.
Hurricane evacuation - location vulnerability, actions taken by public authorities, specific storm threat factors
Tornado sheltering - education, hearing the warning, personality traits
Driving through floods - age,
Be able to describe spatial patterns of extreme weather impacts such as lightning, tornadoes, or hurricanes.
The average number of deaths per year for hurricanes is 47 based on 30 years of data, with the most deaths being caused by freshwater flooding. Deaths are decreasing for the most part when not including large events. Poor are most vulnerable since they many times don’t have money to evacuate.
There are about 800-1400 tornadoes a year in the US but only a small amount cause casualties with a decrease over time based on better forecasting data increasing warning time. The south is the most vulnerable due to the environmental conditions being better and larger populations. Nearly half of the deaths from tornadoes from 1985-2005 were in mobile homes with a large number occurring with nocturnal tornadoes. The older generation and poor are most vulnerable.
Florida is the #1 location of lightning deaths with WY and NM higher when population is taken into consideration. Peaks in the summer and over weekends, mostly males, and usually only 1 person involved. Deaths have decreased based on the increase in forecasting ability, awareness, and better medical treatment.
What role does population have in damage and deaths?
Population plays a considerable role in terms of damage and deaths because damage and deaths tend to increase with increasing population. That is, an increasing population makes more people vulnerable. So, even with better education and effective plans to limit vulnerability, the number of deaths and the amount of damage may increase per natural hazard because there are more people and structures at risk.
Be able to discuss how one might study weather related fatalities.
The first things you need to determine is the frequency of the impacts (low vs medium vs high vs extreme). Know that there is more data for low impact weather events, most warnings/advisories are based on impacts, each weather element will have different impacts on the economy/people/society.
What databases are used?
The databases used are: National Climatic Data Center and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics
What are the problems with this type of work?
The biggest problem is that the information obtained from these databases could produce completely different outcomes. This could be based on the lack of knowledge and communication between the different agencies.
Name the 9 weather/health conditions talked about in the class.
Cold, Flu, West Nile, Flooding, UV radiation, Heat, Air Pollution, Pollen, Mold.
How does cold effect health?
- Carbon monoxide poisoning from generator-fueled efforts to avoid hypothermia.
- Heart attack from over exertion doing things that people don’t usually do - shoveling snow for example.
- Seniors often slip on ice and fracture brittle bones
How is the flu effected by weather?
Winter weather, it turns out, helps flu virus particles survive in the air. Flu virus is spread through tiny liquid droplets exhaled by sufferers. Researchers have discovered that the virus survives best in dry, cold air.The virus particle coats seem to be more stable at cooler temperatures, and drier air keeps the liquid droplets that contain them aloft longer. Other research found a greater connection to dry air and the spread of influenza than for low temperatures. The research showed that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks.