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1
Q

What is Med Surg Nursing?

A

Complex care, comorbidities, challenging, dynamic and diverse.
caring for adults expiriencing complex varitations of health

2
Q

What is the nursing process?

A

It is a formalized way to apply evidenced informed care. An assertive problem solving approach.

3
Q

What are the phases of the nursing process?

A

1) Assessment 2) Diagnosis 3) Outcome 4) Planning 5) Implementation 6) Evaluation

ADOPIE: to remember. hint

4
Q

What is the assessment phase of nursing process?

A

data collection. what types of data? Subjective and objective data. what are the sources of the data? primary and secondary sources. Also includes data interpretation and distinguishing relevent v.s. irrelevent data.

5
Q

what is subjective data?

A

data from pt’s point of view. feelings and concerns. Collected by interview

6
Q

what is objective data?

A

observable and measureable. obtained through physical exams, lab tests and diagnostic tests.

7
Q

what is primary source of data collection?

A

patient and major care provider.

8
Q

what is secondary source of data?

A

includes pt’s family, other health care providers and medical records.

9
Q

What occurs in the DIagnosis phase of the nursing process?

A

Data analysis and problem identification. Nursing doagnosis. Diagnostic (IPES) statements

10
Q

What is a nursing diagnosis?

A

process of identifying actual and potential healing issues. health states that nures leagally diagnose and treat

11
Q

What are diagnostic (IPES) statement?

A

Identifying the Problem, Etiology, Signs and symptoms.

12
Q

What is included in a 3 part nursing diagnosis?

A

1) diagnosis label - related to….
2) Etiology - evidanced by…..
Defining characteristics, signs & symptoms, subjective and objective clinical manifestations
Types of diagnoses: actual, at risk, wellness

13
Q

What occurs in the planning phase of the nursing process?

A

Priority setting, identifying outcomes, determining interventions, developing pt’s plan of care and SMART goals

14
Q

What occurs during the implementation phase?

A

carrying out the individualized plan, nurse may designate activities to supervise qualified others and be involed in carrying out the plan or both

15
Q

What occurs during the evalution phase?

A

was this successful and did it meet the pt’s needs/ determine if the plan shpuld be maintained, revised or discontinued.

16
Q

What is a nursing care plan?

A

contain specific directions for carrying out planned interventions including how, when, how long, how often, where, by whom, with what resources

17
Q

What does critical thinking actually mean?

A

communication, problem solving, evaluation, analysis, synthesis, reflection

18
Q

What are the 12 determinants of health?

A

1) education
2) income & social status
3) employment
4) childhood expiriences
5)connnection to the land, water and enviroment
6) social supports and connections
7) Culture
8) Housing
9) Food security
10) assessibility
11) transportation
12) education

19
Q

What is culture?

A

Includes characteristics and behaviours, economic condition, social conditions, political conditions, type and availability of health care

20
Q

What is health equity

A

create equal oppertunities for good health care for everyone, remove unfiar systems and policies that cause health inequalities improve services to enhance access to and reduce exclusion

21
Q

Health inquality

A

compromises differences in the health status of individuals and groups as a result of the DOHs

22
Q

Health Inequity

A

Refers to health unequalities that are a result of factors that are generally considered to be unjust/unfair/modifiable

23
Q

Culturally Safe Healthcare

A

people feel respected and safe from discrimination when accessing health services

24
Q

Cultural Humility

A

A lifeling journey of self eval reflection and learning to deepen out understanding of how our life expiriances influence how we understand and interact with others. Include skills of self reflection and assessment

25
Q

Cultural Competency

A

Developing practical skills to interact in respectful ways with people who are different from us. we dont’t need to be experts in cultures different from out own but be open to learn

26
Q

Cultural Competency

A

grows when we start to see the influences of our own culture and acknowledge that we have biases. It takes courage and humility to recognize these and to walk this path. it is not about treating everyone the same, but to act respectfully

27
Q

Cultural awareness

A

recognizing that differences and similarities exist between different cultures

28
Q

Cultural Competance

A

Process by which nurses recognize the need for the knowledge and skills to modify assessment & intervention strategies in order to achieve health quality and outcomes. Critical attribute for safe, effective and quality care. Build knowledge buy asking questions.

29
Q

what are the ABC’s of cultural competance

A

Affective (awareness) domain
Behavioural domain
Cognitive domain

30
Q

LEARN model for corss cultural care

A

LISTEN with sympathy and understanding to the pt’s perception of the problem
EXPLAIN your preception of the problem
ACKNOWLEDGE and discuss differences and simularities
RECOMMEND treatment
NEGOTIATE agreement

31
Q

What are the goals of teaching in nursing?

A

promoting, maintssining and restoring their health

32
Q

what is Dicharge planning? when does it begin?

A

preparing pt to go home, collaborative process with pt, family, nurse and health care teatm where a plan is created of what is needed to go home.

Begins on adimission to hospital (1st day)

33
Q

What is chronic illness?

A

health problems that presist over an extended period of time. can be associated with participation and activity limitations

34
Q

What is acute illness

A

characterized by a sudden onset, with signs and symptoms related to the disease process itself

35
Q

what are signs of an illness

A

objective manifestations of a condition (measureable)

36
Q

what are symtoms of an illness?

A

subjective reports of the patient (non measureable)

37
Q

what is chronic illness (noncommunicable)?

A

uncertain etiology. multiple risk factors, long latency, prolonged duration, noninfectious origin.

38
Q

tru or false. can a patient be affected by acute and chronic illnesses simultaneously?

A

True.

39
Q

what is an informal care giver?

A

anyone who provides care without pay. most likely to provide care to a spouse/partner or parent.

40
Q

what is caregiver burden?

A

overall physical, emotional and financial costs of care giving over time

41
Q

What does the pt time line of chronic health challenege look like?

A

1) crisis - symptomatic period before actual diagnosis when individual/family sense something is wrong
2) chronic - time span between diagnosis and death
3) terminal phase - where dealth is inevitable

42
Q

what is the caregiver timeline of chronic illness

A

1) pre-diagnosis with symptoms
2)initial adjustment period after diagnosis
3) chronic “long- haul”
4) pre-terminal accepting the inevitable before death
5) mourning and resolution of loss after death

43
Q

what is ethnogeriatrics?

A

speciality area of providing culturally compotent care to older persons who identify with a particulare ethnic group

44
Q

legal and ethical issues with older populations

A

mental capacity, power of attorney, living will, proxy directive

45
Q

what is stress? what are sources of stress?

A

stress is individualized reaction or response to stimulus, when real or precieved demands exceeds their available coping resources.

sources include stressors and daily hassels

46
Q

what is a stressor?

A

stressinducing demands, situations, internal stimuls or circumstances which endangers a person’s well being or integrity

47
Q

what are daily hassels?

A

expiriances and conditions of daily living that are viewed as irritating or frustrating, major life events, social isolation, work related stress, financial concerns and relationship conflicts

48
Q

what is Hans Selye stress theory

A

stress as a response to a demand or stressor that elicits a series of physiological changing requiring the person to adapt - the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

49
Q

What is Hardiness in affecting response to stress?

A

protective factor, viewing change as a challenge and oppertunity for growth

50
Q

what is sense of coherence in affecting response to stress?

A

ability/capacity to cope with everyday stressors

51
Q

what is resilience in affecting response to stress?

A

resourcefulness, flexability, ability to recover

52
Q

What is the function of the cerebral cortex in stress?

A

plans a course of action after evaluating stressor in light of past expiriences and future consiquences

53
Q

what is the limbic system function with stress?

A

mediator of emotions, feelings and behaviour that ensure survival and self-preservation

54
Q

what is the reticular formation in stress?

A

contains the Reticular Activating System (RAS) to send alertness impulses to limbic system and cerebral cortex
stress increases frequency of alertness impulese.
leads to wakefulness and sleep disturbances

55
Q

what is the hypothalamus role in stress?

A

centeral to connection between nervous and endocrine systems. regulates the function of sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system

56
Q

What parts of the nervous system play a part in stress?

A

cerebral cortex, limbic system, reticular formation and hypothalamus

57
Q

what part of the endocrine system plays a part of stress?

A

sympathetic nervous system (SNS)

58
Q

what does the sympathetic nervous system do in stress?

A

stimulates adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines). sympathoadrenal response, fight-or-flight response

59
Q

True or false. stressors do not have the potential to lead to alterations in immune function?

A

false. they do.

60
Q

hypothalamuls releases what hormone during stress?

A

corticopropin - releasing hormone (CRH)

61
Q

hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce what hormone during stress?

A

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

62
Q

What does the adrenal cortex secrete during stress?

A

corticosteroids

63
Q

what are the physiollogical effects of cortisol?

A

increases blood glucose levels, inhibits inflammatory response

64
Q

what are the affects of corticosteroids?

A

increases cardiac output, blood glucose levels, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate.

65
Q

WHat is psychoneuroimmunology?

A

science involving the interactions among psychological, neurological and immune responses

66
Q

What is pain?

A

problem causing suffering and reduces the quality of life. effective pain relief is a basic human right