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Competency

Speakers ability to access universal grammar

1

Uniplex tie

A network tie b/n individuals that expresses one role or basis for contact and interaction. Eg Just work colleagues.

2

Multiplex tie

Individuals linked through several social relationships, eg. Husband and wife who are also business partners

3

LSC is concerned with

the interaction between languages (codes) and the sociocultural contexts of use, properties of sign system and behaviour of ppl who use it.

4

Sociocultural context

Synchronic and diachronic contexts of language use

5

Saussure's theory

Signifier is the sound-image, signified is the concept. The connection is arbitrary

6

Chomsky's theory

Competence is knowledge of language. Performance is output of competence

7

What can language use be a mechanism for?

Social grouping

8

Variety/dialect

Shared language use patterns, differentiated by region, ie buenos aires Spanish v Spain Spanish, or socially eg working class v upper class London English.

9

Sociolect

Language use patterns shared by a social group, eg teenagers from Melbourne

10

Idiolect

Language use patterns of an individual

11

Speech community

A group of people who share a particular variety (linguistic code) and patterns of using and interpreting it.
Identifying with a social group entails inheriting or adopting the group code
A group code will reflect its beliefs, attitudes and values, e.g. accepting compliments

12

Discourse community

A social group who share ways of interacting and who have common public goals and interests, e.g. medical community

13

Embodiment of Culture

Cultural processes are reflected in language patterns, eg. "I'm afraid..."
Being a group member involves inheriting a communal memory via linguistic code.

14

Actual language use

language that is actually produced by speakers, as opposed to the potential language of their "competence" (Milroy and Gordon)

15

The observer's paradox

Observing people using language that they would use when not being observed

16

Variable

An abstract representation of the source of variation (given in round brackets)

17

Variant

The actual realization of a variable

18

Example of variable and variant

(tomato)
Variant 1: [təmatou]
Variant 2: [təmeitou]

19

There are FACTORS influencing the occurrence of variants. These are known as

VARIABLES

20

A variable is realised as variant 1 or variant 2 in the presence of

certain factors or variables

21

A variable is like a phoneme in that

It changes according to context

22

Free variation is an old theory as opposed to

constrained and predictable variation as it's been known since the 1960s

23

Speaker variability is constrained by

non-linguistic as well as linguistic factors

24

Effects of social factors are

not categorical; speakers show some alternation

25

Effects of social factors are rather

probabilistic; they tell you how likely you are to hear a certain variant in a specific context of use.

26

The sociolinguist looks at how

linguistic-internal and linguistic-external factors constrain the occurrence of a specific variant in a particular context of use.

27

Example of linguisitic variation

Bell (1984, 2001) found that the same NZ newsreaders reading the same news pronounced intervocalic (t) differently when reading news on classical vs. popular radio stations:
‘city’ conservative, stop variant
‘ciddy’ innovative, flap variant
This variation was caused by ‘Audience design’

28

Social dialectology

The study of linguistic variation in relation to speakers’ membership in social groups, or in relation to other non-linguistic factors
People’s language use can be a diagnostic of where they come from
A scary story: Haitians in Hispaniola were identified by their pronunciation of the trilled Spanish /r/. Dominican soldiers would hold up some parsley and ask people to name it. If they could not pronounce perejil they were killed! (also see Shibboleth story)

29

What was signficant about Labov's Martha's Vineyard study?

First social dialect study