Week 1 & 2 - Introduction, Understanding & Measuring Crime Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1 & 2 - Introduction, Understanding & Measuring Crime Deck (25)
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1

Official data

Collected and disseminated by official means such as the government. used to look at crime rates and crime control (ie. policing)

2

Victimization data

Victim surveys conducted to redress some of the problems with official data and uncover the 'dark figure of crime'

3

Self-reported data

Surveys administered to sample populations that measure, attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and demographic data

4

Dark figure of crime

Figure of unreported crime in the community

5

Qualitative research

Explores new areas of criminology and looks at how people understand and interpret crime

6

Quantitative research

Creates interference about larger populations through statistics

7

What are the main correlates of crime?

- Age
- Gender
- Economy
- Social class
- Race and ethnicity
- Media
- Justice policies

8

What are the main/identifiable crime patterns?

- Day, season, climate
- Regional differences

9

Unofficial data

Data that is not official in nature. Includes victim reports, self reports and other forms of data

10

How types of data is used to measure crime?

- Quantitative data
- Qualitative data
- Mixed methods

11

How is official data recorded, compiled and reported in Australia?

Recorded by the police and complied and reported by the AIC

12

How do criminologists use official data (form)?

- Raw data
- Data per 100,000 or 1,000 people
- As percentage data

13

Mixed method research

Use of both qualitative and quantitative data to explore certain aspects/trends of crime (particularly inter-sectional data)

14

What are some other forms of data?

- Cohort research
- Experimental research
- Observational and interview research
- Meta-analysis and systematic reviews
- Data mining
- Crime mapping

15

What is a crime trend?

A significant change in the nature of selected crime types within a defined geographical area and time period

16

What is a crime pattern?

A group of two or more crimes that are reported or discovered by police that are similar in nature because of a set of conditions

17

What is a correlate of crime?

factors that are related to the increase and decrease of crime

18

Criminology

Body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the processes of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the breaking of laws (Sutherland and Cressey, 1939, 1)

19

Crime (formal/legal definition)

Legislative codes that identify certain behaviours as punishable by the state

20

Crime (Social Harm- Sutherland 1949)

Actions that are against the "common welfare of society"

21

Crime (Deviance violation- Durkheim)

Crime is part of the 'natural' deviance inherent to all societies with a focus on its social functions

22

Crime (norm violation- Sellin)

Means to analyse and identify a typology of conduct norm violations that could be scientifically verified

23

Crime (human rights violation)

Prosecuting crimes against stateless people and crimes against groups of people conducted by the state as the offender

24

What are the aetiologies of crime?

- crime as sin
- classical criminology
- medical model
- rational choice
- sociology

25

What is the concept of crime as sin?

Crime is equated with sin or transgression. In the west, often with evil, temptation and the devil