Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (52):
what is occurring during the first mid to late 19th century?
f nation epidemics, Canada developing as a nation, inc immigration to the west, ongoing challenges of providing basic health services to settlers and aboriginal peoples experiences a wave of epidemics introduced by immigrants
what did the 1867 British North America Act provide?
limited provisions for est and main of healthcare system. act specified that the federal govt was responsible for taxes, laws, quarantine, and estab of marine hospitals, prov didn't make an effort to pick up the slack
how was healthcare provided during this time (after 1867 British North America Act)
at municipal level by public welfare or charity
When did provinces begin to pass legislation? what did this allow?
late 19th century. allowed for estab of local and prov dep of health
• Second half of 19th century the nursing profession was dev, mostly by______
During nightingales time home health care was the centre of healthcare delivery
F. there was a rise in dominance of medicine and hospitals at the centre of healthcare delivery
Around what time was the first school of nursing opened? where?
Nightingale era - 1874 in St Catherines Ontario
Women groups and individual women played a vital role in he development of _______
community health services for the rural and poor communities and immigrant women in Canada in the late 19th and 20th centuries
Who led the development of the Victorian Order of Nurses? What was this? (might not need to know names ) How was VON created?
• 1897 Lady Aberdeen wife of governor general led the dev of Victorian Order of Nurses (VON) to supply trained nurses to those wo couldn’t access healthcare. Her idea that skilled home helpers trained in midwifery could get to rural women best was resisted by drs, nurses, and National Council of Women.
This created VON, medicalization of obstetrics and extinction of lay midwifery
what was the purpose of VON?
had a central authority and local branches with volunteers. They offered bedside nursing to families that couldn’t afford private duty nurses. Their fees wre paid partly by clients, charity, grants
• VON gave charity and affordabl care to working and middle class
by early 20th century nursing there were 3 distinct sectors, what are these?
hospital nurses, private-duty nurses, and public health and home-visiting nurses
T/F public health nursing was not among the "professional elite"
F- it was and required more training. had higher salaries and stayed in profession longer.
Who was important for the development of CHN?
local volunteer women
PHN is coined by wh?
Lillian Wald. She founded Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service in the 19th century. they attended to poverty, culture, and living conditions
in early 20th century CHN evolved from what kind of nursing to address what rates of high what
TB nursing and school nursing to address Canadas high infant mortality rates.
what does school nursing focus on?
conditions of living and poverty and the health of kids and families
why were PHN hesitant to give advice about prevention of diseases?
sometimes local drs didn't support public health programs bc worried PHN were competing with them for pt and income
why are PHN programs in rural/isolated areas not as successful at this time?
• PHN programs in rural/isolated areas weren’t very successful..the public wanted the visitng nurses to give the bedside care not PHNs (who focused on health education eg venereal disease, mental heath, preschool health, prenatal...and prevention of illness)
what were the earliest maternal child health programs?
the well-baby clinics established by the red cross peace program
Who was the foundation of home health nursing and were organized and run by lay woman and charity orgs for poor-middle class?
district and visiting nurses
what do district and visiting nurses do?
provided bedside nursing to preventative health teaching across geographic and cult boundaries
T/F district and visiting nurses offered a form of primary health care
T- encompassed access to essential curative, preventative, and health promotion services with ppl in their most immediate community setting- home
what were the biggest challenges district and visiting nurses faced?
travelling and climate
Did district and visiting nurses last WWII?
• After WWII most publicly funded healthcare programs couldn’t continue d/t lack of $ or poor quality of their nursing programs
• During postwar period the local/provincial depts. Of healthcare grew and dec the work of VON as hospital admission became the norm
what is the role of a military nurse?
during flu epidemics military nurses helped care for hospital patients, medical units, refugee camps, etc.
what types of visions and knowledge do military nurses need to have?
• Military nurses requires PHN’s broad vision, pop health approach, adaptability across settings of 1’, 2’, 3’ prevention, ethical component involving human rights and violence
• Emergency preparedness and disaster nursing are essential
what is the role of an outpost nurse?
work in remote locations, serving settlers, and aboriginal communities
do outpost nurses work collaboratively with dr?
often no dr or backup services
what did outpost nurses notice while working in remote areas and what did they advocate for?
need more resources which were low on priority list
in the mid 20th shift there is a shift from child health, communicable diseases towards what____
dec morbidity and mortality for chronic illness/injuries
there were no programs for _____care until 1974
what occurred with VON in the early 20th century?
rising hospital crisis became a crisis for VON when pt were discharged from the hospital earlier and required home care which did not have many programs until 1974 and VON commissioned a national report recommended visit nursing organizations to deliver publicly insured home care programs but lots of decisions about these programs did not include VON (sorry so wordy)
during what time in the early 20th century did community mental health emerge and why?
60s and 70s in response to deinstitutionalization of patients with mental illness
what occurred in the 1980s that affected health care?
• During the 80s there was recession that led to lg losses of nursing positions, particularly downsizing of hospitals. The dec spending continued into the 90s
T/F replacement of nurses in places of clinical leadership with managers who didn’t have this capacity
govt has been and still does attempt to replace hospital care with ____
home care and community services
T/F number of PHN has increased in 20th century
what are some of the reasons for the resurgence of TB, AIDS, SARS, H1n1?
loss of capacity to monitor, identify and follow up on communicable diseases
the WHO adopted the _____ at the 1978 international conference on primary health care and declared primary health care as the guiding vision for achieving health for all people
Declaration of Alma Ata
what documents sparked a public health movement and focused on broad health promotion strategies that remain foundational to CHN and education in the late 20th century?
Ottawa Charter for Helath Promotion and Lalonde Report (1974)
what are some of the goals of community health nurses association of Canada?
formed 1989 with goals to develop strategic organizational partnerships, advancing the practice of community health nursing and refining the role and standards of practice
what does Romanow Commissions report "building on values: the future of health care in canada" suggest (21 century)
suggested shifting resources and policy towards primary care, home cae, HP
why was the 2004 public health agency of Canada formed?
as formed in response to SARS and concern that the system coultn respond effectively to public heath threats
in the first decade what did PHAC focus on?
has suggested dev of sustainable public health workforce including nursing
and SDOH and how poor health is rooted in inequities
(pg 60 now)
what is public health?
organized efforts of society to keep people healthy and prevent injury, illness and premature death.combo of programs, services and policies that promote the health of all Canadians.
T/F : PHN is one type of community health nurse
what does a public health nurse do?
applies public health science, the principles of primary health care, nursing science and the social sciences to promote, protect and preserve the health of populations
In • Sptember ’04: Public Health Agency of Canada was established with the mission to: ?
promote and protect the health of Canadians through leadership, partnership, innovation, and action to public health”
• In 2006 appointed a chief public officer (CPHO). Under the leadership of this CPHO professionals focus on the health of the entire population in Canada to:
o Promote health
o Prevent and control chronic diseases
o Prevent and control ifections
o Prepare for and respond to public health emergencies
o Serve as a central point for sharing Canadas expertise with the rest of the word
o Apply international research and development to Canada’s public health programs
o Strengthen intergovernmental collaboration on public health and facilitate national approaches to public health policy and planning
average lifespan has increased by more than __ years since early 1900s and ___ years are attributes to public health
what are the PH nursing competencies?
o Knowledge derived from public health and nursing science
o Skills related to assessment and analysis
o Conducting policy and program planning, implementing, and evaluating
o Achieving partnerships, collaboration and advocacy
o Promoting diversity and inclusiveness
o Effective communication exchange
o Leadership capabilities
o Professional responsibility and accountability