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Value is a particularly helpful measure of performance because

takes into account the long-term interests of all the stakeholders in a company, not just the shareholders


why is value relevant to all shareholders

companies that maximize value for their shareholders in the LONG TERM also create more employment, treat their current and former employees better, give their customers more satisfaction, and shoul- der a greater burden of corporate responsibility than more shortsighted rivals.


Benefits of long term perspective of value creation on the economy

more robust and build stronger economies, create more jobs, greater commitment to meeting their social responsibilities

- coporate social responsibility initiatives that companies take can help them create shareholder value


value creation

companies create value by investing capital they raise from investors to generate future cash flows at rates of return exceeding the cost of capital i.e. operation generates higher return than cost of capital


what drive value

combo of ROIC, growth relative to its cost of capital


conservation of value

Anything that does not create cash flow does not create value unless it reduces the risk.


example of conservation of  value

  • when a company substitutes debt for equity or issues debt to repurchase shares, it changes the ownership of claims to its cash flows. However, it doesn’t change the total available cash flows -- value is conserved, not created
  • changing accounting techniques will change the appearance of cash flows without actually changing the cash flows


Why is creating sustainable value a long term endeavour

in the long term, competitive with drive down competitive adv and ROIC


long term perspective of value creation

What must managers do?

managers must resist short- term pressure to take actions that create illusory value quickly at the expense of the real thing in the long term



long-term perspective on value creation 

what correlation is there

strong positive correlation between long-term shareholder returns and investments in R&D

- companies with the highest total returns to shareholders (TRS) also had the largest increases in employment.

- companies that earned the highest shareholder returns also invested the most in R&D.


the amount of value a company creates is governed ultimately by

its ROIC, revenue growth, and of course its ability to sustain both over time.


focusing too much on earnings or earnings growth often leads

leads companies to stray from a value-creating path.


Disaggregating cash flow into ____

Cash flow increase may come from


revenue growth or investment reduction, or cost reduction


Growth opportunity ‐‐ Additional value is created if

the company can invest in new projects earning above the cost of capital.

 ‘True’ growth stocks have access to such opportunities.

 Investments that earn below cost of capital will destroy value, regardless of what happens to top‐line sales growth


Cost of capital

a discount rate that reflects what investors expect to earn from investing in the company


Growth = 

Investment rate x ROIC


Link between growth, ROIC and value creation

for all levels of growth, any increase in ROIC  --> increase in value 

but when ROIC is high, faster growth increases value

when ROIC is lower than company's cost of capital , faster growth destroys value

ROIC = cost of capital neither increase or destroy value


Should low ROIC companies strive for growth?



Argument: if a company grows, its ROIC will naturally in- crease. However, we find this is true only for young, start-up businesses.

Counterargument: Most often in mature companies, a low ROIC indicates a flawed business model or unattractive industry structure.


If growth is a significant value driver, does getting bigger translate into creating value?

No. getting bigger does not translate into creating value. • Growth can harm value if the return on the growth is less than the cost of capital. Growth creates value if the return exceeds the cost of capital.


Link between ROIC, growth and cash flow

Higher ROIC = higher cash flow because because it means the firm need not reinvest as much to maintain its growth and operating cash flow

Cash flow can be broken down into growth and ROIC


What should high ROIC and low ROIC companies do 

companies already earning a high ROIC can generate more additional value by increasing their growth rate, rather than their ROIC, while low-ROIC companies will generate relatively more value by focusing on increasing their ROIC.

i.e. high-ROIC companies should focus on growth, while low-ROIC companies should focus on improving returns before growing.


If value is based on discounted cash flows, why should a company or investor analyse growth and ROIC?

Although the discounted cash flow gives an estimate of value, the sources of value creation are growth and increasing ROIC. This is because increases in cash flow can be broken into growth and ROIC


when does growth destroy value

Growth destroys value when the ROIC on the new projects is less than the cost of capital.


despite the resulting decline in average ROIC.

can still create value as long as the cost of capital was lower


he companies that created the most value

second highest value creation

were those that grew fastest and maintained their high ROICs.

But the second-highest value creators were those that grew fastest even though they experienced moderate declines in their ROICs. They created more value than companies that increased their ROICs but grew slowly.


companies with low returns pursue growth on the assump- tion that this will also improve their profit margins


Except for small start-up companies, faster growth rarely fixes a company’s ROIC problem. Low returns usually indicate a poor industry structure (e.g., airlines), a flawed business model, or weak execution. If a company has a problem with ROIC, the com-pany shouldn’t grow until the problem is fixed.


- The companies that had low growth but increased their ROICs outperformed the faster-growing companies that did not improve their ROICs.


Value conservation principle and debt financing 

substitution of debt for equity in and of itself; it only matters if the substitution changes the company’s cash flows through tax reductions (interest payment are tax deductible --> higher cash flow) or if associated changes in management decisions change cash flows (must have cash available to pay debt)


value is driven by

This chapter showed that value is driven by expected cash flows discounted at a cost of capital. Cash flow, in turn, is driven by expected returns on invested capital and revenue growth. The corollary is that any management action that does not increase cash flow does not create value.


Management implications of value of conservation

share repurchases

When a company buys back its shares, it does not increase total cash flows --> does not create value even though there is an increase in EPS

EPS increases because number of shares has declined. But at the same time debt increases b/c company borrows money to buyback its shares --> more volatile cash flows --> investors demand higher return --> P/E drops and offsets increase in EPS