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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (26):
1

When were anesthetic gases discovered and who primarily used them

Discovered in 1700’s

Upper middle class used recreationally

Medical students used also

2

Dentists in Connecticut that pioneered use of anesthesia in dentistry

Horace Wells

William Morton

3

Surgeon that used diethyl ether to remove cyst.
Did not document so did not get credit.

Crawford long. 1842

4

Demonstration of the use of ether in Ether Dome in Massachusetts General Hospital by which physician and when

William Morton

Oct 16, 1846

5

What is Letheon?

William Morton added red dye to ether in order to patent it and sell it

6

What is chloroform

Much more rapid induction than ether.
Did not cause “ether frolic”
Discovered by James Simpson
Several pt deaths after came into use

7

Case of Mr Meggison and Hanna Greener

Unfortunate surgeon
Unfortunate patient

Pt died very rapidly after several breaths of chloroform.

8

What where the main problems with anesthesia initially?

-Infection. Minimal concern for sterility.
-Physicians did not choose to specialize in anesthesiology.
-Pts did not receive continuous vigilance.

9

What 2 words define a nurse anesthetist

Vigilance
Integrity

10

First documented nurse anesthetist

Sister Mary Bernard
1877
St Vincent’s Hospital, Erie PA

11

Alice Magaw

“Mother of Anesthesia”
Worked at Mayo Clinic
Began to develop different type of anesthesia
Reported 14,000 anesthetics without a single complication

12

Agatha Hodgins

Founder of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetist.
Personal anesthetist of Dr George Crile
Introduced “gas” anesthesia: nitrous oxide/oxygen mix
Set up first school of anesthesia: Lakeside Hospital, SOA Cleveland OH

13

Gertrude Fife

Called for certification of anesthesia graduates

14

What is TEFRA?

Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982

Affect billing.
Seven conditions and anesthesiologist must satisfy to obtain reimbursement of medical direction of CRNAs

15

ASA Anesthesia care team statement

Believes a physician needs to be involved in each case. Not supportive of independent practice.

16

How many states have no requirement for physician supervision of CRNAs in their medial practice acts?

20

17

What are the qualifications and capabilities required for an individual to become a CRNA?

-current/unrestricted state RN license
-graduation from a nurse anesthesia program accredited by the COA
-successful completion of the certification exam by the NBCRNA

18

What is the COA?

Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Education Programs

19

What is the NBCRNA?

National Board on Certification and Recertification of Nurse Anesthetists

20

What are the 3 branches of the government?

Judicial branch

Legislative branch


Executive branch

21

Types of law

-criminal law: body of law established to protect society from harm

-civil law: body of law concerned with private rights and remedies

22

What are some examples of criminal law issues?

-fraudulent insurance claims
-practicing without a license
-misuse of controlled substances

23

What are examples of civil law issues?

-malpractice
-torts
-intentional tort: assault, battery, false imprisionment
-unintentional tort: malpractice, negligence

24

Why do we have tort laws?

-to correct a wrong
-to deter certain activities from taking place
-to distribute loss
-to compensate the victim for loss or injury
-to address a social concern
-to punish or create and example


*goal is to restore the party that was has suffered damages to the condition that existed before the damage

25

What is negligence?

*4 things have to be proven

-Duty: consent/contract between provider and pt
-Breech of duty: practitioner did not meet the level required by law. Either an error of commission or error of omission
-Cause: show connection between negligence and injury
-Damage: must prove damages occurred

26

What is Res Ipsa Loquitur?

“The act speaks for itself”

No other explanation can be made. Burden of proof now on the defendant.