- The cause of something
- presumed or theorized cause
- Many disorders have many which can be different in each client even though they have the same disorder
- the prevalence of a disorder
- how common
- distribution (racial, worldwide, etc)
- ex: 1 in 1000, common among men, etc
Key Treatment Conditons
- What are “they” saying about how we should go about treating this?
- What are effective/ineffective?
- Condition that existed first
- coexisting condition
- what else does client have?
What was treatment for people declared “strange?” (Possessed by the devil)
- admit possession and repent
- Be tortured until one admits
- Death to force the soul from devil
What did Martin Luther declare?
- “Mad people are possessed by the devil.”
What was the thought on what to do with “the criminal, the demented, and the debtor?”
- Institutionize rather than kill them.
What is Millieu therapy?
- Reinforce good and decent behavior by changing environment
- recover, life moves on
- revival/ religious experience to set you on the road to proper living
What is Social Darwinism?
- “Survival of the fittest” MI are inferior and should be sterilized lest they contaminate the gene poool Misfits should be “locked up”
- 25 states passed sterilization laws by 1936
What was the Settlement Movement?
- Help unfortunate
- Child labor laws passed Compulsory education enacted
- WWI saw a conservative swing
- anti- immigrant sentiment flared “Jewish Peril”
What is shell shock called now?
What resulted in the breakthrough on Psychotropic medications?
- less physical restraints
- less labotomies
- people no longer had to be hospitalized if given medication
- managed difficult people
What was the National Institute of Mental Health founded and funded for?
- Drive research
What was the big change in the perception of the cause of mental illness?
- Considered NOT to be a result of witchcraft, etc
- NOT demonic
- Something wrong with the person
- ”You are the problem/it’s your fault”
What were the results of Pope Innocent’s actions towards mentally ill?
- witch burning
What was made practical because of advances in psychotropic medications?
- halfway houses
- group homes
For what did Congress begin requiring services?
- alcohol and drug patients
- follow-up treatment for hospitalized patients
What did the substantial decrease in institution admissions mean?
- The fewer people in institutions means more people in the community
What were some of the problems with the CMHA?
- Areas to be served by mental health centers were too large
- Boundaries between rich/poor were confused
- Clnics wanted “best” areas which were in nice areas with less issues.
- Focus on Clinical services rather than prevention
- too much for the centers to handle with managed money
Which of the aspects of the act couldn’t meet the demands of the people?
- JFK thought of this and only could get 5% of allocated dollars for the act
For what did the established funding for community mental health centers provide?
24-hour emergency care
Consultations, education, prevention
What serves as a foundation for the system we have today as well as the current delivery of treatment?
- The Community Mental Health Act
- The compromise bill that was finally passed.
What was The Kennedy Plan?
- reintegrate mentally ill into community so therefore dollars and jobs were at stake
- able to do this because of medications
- prevention was a key idea
What did the AMA think about JFK’s thoughts on prevention?
- They opposed JFK
- feared socialized medicine (health care) would follow which was kin to communism apparently
Describe the conditions in the institutions?
- People were chained and caged
What were the conditions like in institutions during the Reform Movment?
- Conditions were bad
What was the general thought on the mentally ill in Ancient Greece?
- Mentally ill are under influence of angry gods
- must be shunned
- deparate them by placing them on islands together
What is Trephination?