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1

Sympathetic nerves

autonomic motor nerves that project from the CNS in the lumbar (small of the back) and thoracic (chest area) regions of the spinal cord

2

Parasympathetic nerves

autonomic motor nerves that project from the brain and sacral (lower back) region of the spinal cord

3

Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

project from CNS and go part of the way to the target organs before they synapse on other neurons (second stage neurons) that carry the signals the rest of the way

4

3 principles

SN stimulate, organise and mobilise energy resources in threatening situations; parasympathetic nerves act to conserve energy
Each autonomic target organ receives opposing sympathetic and parasympathetic input, and its activity is thus controlled by relative levels of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
Sympathetic changes are indicative of psychological arousal; parasympathetic changes are indicative of psychological relaxation

5

Meninges

3 protective membranes for CNS
outer meninx, fine arachnoid space, pia mater

6

outer meninx

tough membrane called dura meter

7

fine arachnoid membrane

subarachnoid space with large blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid

8

pia mater

adheres to surface of CNS

9

Cerebrospinal fluid

Fills subarachnoid space, central canal of the spinal cord and the cerebral ventricles of the brain
produced by the choroid plexuses (capillaries in ventricles from the Pia mater)
Excess fluid absorbed from subarachnoid space into dural sinuses

10

central canal

small central channel along spinal cord

11

cerebral ventricles

four large internal chambers of the brain

12

hydrocephalus

buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles causing their wall and the entire brain to expand

13

blood brain barrier

Cells of the cerebral blood vessels walls are tightly packed, forming a barrier to the passage of many molecules

14

multipolar neuron

neuron with more than two processes extending from its cell body

15

unipolar neuron

one process extending from cell body

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bipolar neuron

two processes extending from cell body

17

bundles of axons in CNS and PNS

In the CNS bundles of axons are called tracts; in the PNS they are nerves

18

Schwann cell vs oligodendrocytes

o: CNS, S: PNS
Each Schwann cell has one myelin segment; oligodendrocytes have many each
Only Schwann cells can guide axonal regeneration after damage- effective axonal regeneration in the mammalian nervous system is restricted to PNS

19

microglia

respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris or entire cells and triggering inflammatory responses
Regulation of cell death, synapse formation, synapse elimination

20

astrocytes

largest, allow the passage of some chemicals from the blood into CNS neurons and blocking others, contract or relax blood vessels based on the blood flow demands of particular brain regions
Exchange chemical signals, control and maintain synapses between neurons, control blood-brain barrier and respond to brain injury

21

golgi stain

uses silver chromate to view individual neurons; used for overall shape of neurons

22

nissil stain

shows number of neurons in an area; cresyl violet binds only to structures in neutron cell body; used to count number of cell bodies

23

electron microscopy

neuronal structure; for greater detail first coat thin slices of neural tissue with an electron absorbing substance then pass beam of electrons to get electron micrograph; SEM for 3D

24

anterograde tracing methods

wants to trace the paths of axons projecting away from cell bodies in an area; injects a chemical, taken up by cell bodies and transported down axon to terminal buttons, brain removed and sliced to locate chemicals

25

retrograde tracing methods

wants to trace the paths of axons projecting into a particular area; chemical injected, taken up by buttons and transported backwards to cell bodies, brain removed and sliced to locate

26

anterior

AKA rostral

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posterior

AKA caudal

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medial

towards the midline of body, towards spinal cord

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lateral

towards outside of body
away from spinal cord

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proximal

closer to CNS

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Distal

farther from CNS

32

midsaggital section

section cut down the centre of the brain between the two hemispheres

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cross section

section cut at a right angle to any long, narrow structure

34

gray matter

cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons

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white matter

myelinated axons

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dorsal horns

the two dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter

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ventral horns

the two ventral arms

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dorsal roots

All dorsal root axons are sensory unipolar neurons with their cell bodies grouped together just outside the cord to form the dorsal root ganglia

39

ventral roots

Neurons of the ventral root are motor multipolar neurons with their cell bodies in the ventral horns

40

myelencephalon

Most posterior divison of the brain
Tracts carrying signals between the rest of the brain and body
Reticular formation: sleep, attention, movement, maintains muscle tone, reflexes
AKA reticular activating system

41

metencephalon

Houses many ascending and descending tracts and part of the reticular formation
Pons and cerebellum
Cerebellum: large convoluted structure on the brain stem’s dorsal surface
Sensorimotor structure
Damage eliminates ability to control movement and adapt them to changing environment
Also cognitive deficits with damage (decision making and language)

42

mesencephalon

tectum and tegmentum

43

tectum

dorsal surface of the midbrain
Inferior colliculi: posterior, auditory function
Superior colliculi: anterior, visual-motor function, direct the body’s orientation toward or away from particular visual stimuli
Tectum in lower vertebrates AKA optic tectum

44

tegmentum

ventral to the tectum
Contains:
Periaqueductal gray: gray matter around the cerebral aqueduct (duct connecting the third and fourth ventricles, mediates the analgesic effects of opiod drugs)
Substantia nigra: black substance, sensorimotor system
Red nucleus: sensorimotor system

45

diencephalon

thalamus and hypothalamus

46

thalamus

White lamina composed of myelinated axons visible
Has many different nuclei
Sensory relay nuclei: receive signals from sensory receptors, process them and then transmit them to the appropriate areas of sensory cortex
Lateral geniculate nuclei (visual), medial geniculate nuclei (auditory), ventral posterior nuclei (somatosensory systems)

47

hypothalamus

eating, sleep and sexual behaviour
Releases hormones from pituitary gland
Optic chiasm: point at which optic nerves from each eye come together; some axons of optic nerve decussate via this (contralateral vs ipsilateral for non decussating)
Mammillary bodies: pair of spherical nuclei on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus just being the pituitary

48

telencephalon

initiates voluntary movement, interprets sensory input and mediates complex cognitive processes such as learning, speaking and problem solving
Cerebral cortex is mainly composed of small unmyelinated neurons, so is gray and AKA gray matter

49

lissencephalic

smooth brained
most mammals

50

largest gyri

precentral (frontal), post central (parietal) and superior temporal (temporal) gyri

51

two large functional areas in each parietal lobe

post central gyrus analyses sensations from the body whereas remaining areas in posterior parts play roles in perceiving the location of both object and our bodies and in directing our attention

52

Layer os neocortex

Cortical neurons are either pyramidal or stellate
The six layers of neocortex differ from one another in terms of size and density of their cell bodies and the relative proportion of pyramidal and stellate cell bodies they contain
Many long axons and dendrites course vertically through the neocortex (columnar organisation)
Variations in thickness of the six layers from area to area

53

pyramidal cells

large multipolar neurons with pyramid shaped cell bodies, a large dendrite called an apical dendrite and long axon

54

stellate cells

small star shaped interneuron

55

hippocampus

Not neocortex, medial edge of the cerebral cortex, some kinds of memory (spatial location)

56

limbic system

Limbic system: circle thalamus, regulation of motivated behaviours (fleeing, feeding, fighting and sexual behaviour)
amygdala
hippocampus
cingulate cortex
fornix
septum
basal ganglia

57

amygdala

emotion and fear

58

hippocampus

certain forms of memory

59

cingulate cortex

large strip of cortex in the cingulate gyrus on the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres

60

fornix

major tract of limbic system

61

septum

midline nucleus at the anterior tip of the cingulate cortex

62

basal ganglia

also includes amygdala
Caudate
Putamen
Together AKA striatum
Globus pallidus
Performance of voluntary motor responses and decision making
Nucleus accumbens: plays a role in the rewarding effects of drugs and other reinforcers