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Who are authors/theorists of Week 10 - Parenting - Motherhood and Fatherhood 

1.    Goodwin, S & Huppatz, K (2010)

2.  Gregory and Milner (2011)


What concept does Goodwin and Huppatz explore?

"The Good Mother"


How does Goodwin, S & Huppatz, K (2010) summarise TGM?

(11 Points)

  1. Seen in public policy, media, pop culture, workplaces and daily practices.
  2. Shapes women’s lives.
  3. Socially regulated:
  4. TGM discourse ensures women take on child rearing, ties women identities to rearing role as nurturers to others.
  5. Regulates family life
  6. Drives nation-building agenda.
  7. Concept not static due to different settings.
  8. A social construct pressuring woman to conform to particular standards an ideas. à self-judged as well as objectively judged by society
  9. Institutionalized in social arrangement and practices. à going above belief and individual freedom.
  10. Linked to Women subordination
  11. Linked to gender stratification à Representation of motherhood (that also comes with expectation) are in constanft flux due the change in socio-cultural contexts.


What does Rudduck (2001) say about TGM?

  1. Controls women’s lives
  2. TGM = a social regulation
  3. The concept of the good mother is not stable or uniform


The good mother ____ over time in _____ and _____.

Complete theory and theoriest

  1. Kelso (2006):
    1. The concept of the good mother changes over time in fashion and in context


What does Arendell (1999) theorise about? (3 answers)

1. TGM

2.  Motherhood a ‘typed’ and fatherhood is not

3. The ideal type of TGM.


What does Arendell (1999) say about TGM? 

  1. Motherhood ideology runs deep into lives and family processes.
  2. Shapes identities and activities
  3. During resistance, mothering ideology is a backdrop for action and assessment.


What does Arendell (1999) say about 'typed' mothers?

  1. Motherhood will always remain subordinated to hegemonic masculinity
  2. Motherhood does not elevate the social and economic status of mothers experienced by men.


According to Arendell (1999) what is the 'ideal' type of the good mother?

Heterosexual, married, monogamous. White, native, not economically self-sufficient, economically dependent on husband income, unemployed.


What does Hadfield et al, 2007 say about TGM?

  1. Contemporary Women understand themselves as ‘choosing’ motherhood because the disrupted notion of motherhood as a biological imperative or the view that womanhood and motherhood are synonymous.
  2. ‘Choosing motherhood’ includes when, whether, in what context or if at all to have children.


Generally, what does feminism say about motherhood?

  1. Motherhood as structured and organised within a prevailing gender system


What does O’Reilly 2004 theorize about motherhood?

  1. The ‘reproduction of motherhood’
  2. Motherhood regarded as an institution that is reproduced by ‘ideologies of motherhood’
  3. This includes the ideology of intensive mothering through ‘hegemonic motherhood’.
  4. Defines women, promotes standards to be judged, both as mothers and non-mothers in the reproduction of gendered-stratified society


According to Miller (2005) what does GTM discourse require?

(1) act responsibility

(2) present themselves in a culturally recognisable way.


What does Krane & Davies 2007 think about motherhood?

‘intensive mothering’ - TGM is naturally ready to care for their children, no matter the circumstances


Hays (1996) on TGM discourse.

  1. TGM discourse will never put her child aside for her own convenience.
  2. Placing material wealth/power higher than children is strictly forbidden.


Johnston & Swanson, 2003: on TGM

  1. The shaping on how mother’s feel à TGM is a happy mother, unhappy is failure
  2. A responsibility to the mother as an individual, not the system.


TGM and Spigel & Baraister theory.

  1. Mothers take one aspiration, norms, and desires articulated by a wider political force and ‘through a process of subjectification in a Foucultian sense’ take on both task of conforming to norms and self-regulation.


  1. Jessella (2009) on TGM

  1. Society seeks ways to rate mother à the internet provides endless ways to assert whether someone is ‘a bad mum’.
  2. Resistive activities against TGM. à Deviancy of TGM à Media portrays of dad being ‘a bit bad’ vs woman.


  1. Wilson & Huntington (2006) on TGM

  1. The pattern of higher education, the establishment of career than (perhaps) starting a family for contemporary middle-class women has become gradually more normative.
  2. New Social and political imperatives that encourage women into education and employment have disputed ideas about TGM.


  1. Probert (2001) on motherhood and education

  1. While higher education and the establishment of career have become the normative, having children continues to interrupt this trajectory.


What do Chesterman & Ross-Smith theories about and what is it about? 

  1. The ‘Good executive, good mother” à a focus on women who are executives and also mothers.
    1. The tension between motherhood and careers.
    2. Emerging from the ‘schema of devotion’ OR ‘competing devotions’ dichotomy.
    3. Working longer hours vs devotion to family, thus creating a result in which cannot be engaged in longer working hours or unable to be devoted fully to the family.

Suggests that there should be accommodation motherhood for the executive women to reduce required devotion to work that is conventional to stenotype demands


What does Luisa Smith theorise about the good mother?

  1. The concept of TGM in manual trade occupations à negotiating the concept in male-dominated workforce.
    1. The result similar to executive mothers
    2. Regulation and resistance à Women (in manual labor) aspired to become mainstream mothers but felt mothering to be physically and psychically unsatisfying.
  2. The call for mothering social regulation, as opposed to only a form of TGM regulated by ‘drawing female bodies’ into line.


What is ‘Yummy mummy’ and ‘slummy mummy'?

Who are the theorists?

  1. Goodwin & Huppatz:
    1. ‘Yummy mummy’ and ‘slummy mummy à Distorted archetypes figures of real women that women are exposed and drawn upon. à Added Pressure on women.
    2. Practices of taste, style and self-presentation à new forms of TGM AND reacts the working and middle-class divide.


What does Walkerdine and Lucey (1989) understand in regards to motherhood?

  1. Argues that motherhood is classed concepts and practices.
  2. Working class mothers judged against middle-class motherhood.
  3. Mothering is implicated in repeating and re-inscribed class discourse.


What Campbell 2009 mean by school choice?

  1. Parenting involvement with school à ‘School choice’ à a discourse on parental involvement in schooling à serves to reproduce the middle-class advantage.
  2. Intensification of labor absence from ‘school choice discourse’
  3. Heightened importance of ‘school work’ à a new dimension on unpaid care work and emotional work for children à ‘labours of love’.


What does Claire Aitchison discuss on motherhood?

  1. Recent policy changes have burdened mothers that are expected to expand and consumer education and shopping.
  2. ‘School Shopping’:
    1. taking on the role of settling family conflicts, comforting, child protection, and presented a ‘responsible’ and involved mothers.
    2. Time-consuming and emotionally charged
  3. Mothers are haunted by guilt and anxiety as they engage in activity that they regard as ‘high stakes. 


Byrne (2006) on motherhood?

  1. Activities of middle-class mothers, positioning for the ‘best’ or the ‘right’ school setting à articulations of middle-class whiteness, snob, racism.
  2. Mothers who school shop do so by the fear of failing to be a good white middle class mother.


Helen Proctor on motherhood.

  1. 1900-1950s - Women ‘became’ mother ‘TGM’ in the rise of the development of the mind of the ‘quality’ of child as significant.