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1

Who are the main authors of Marriage and Divorce?

Hewitt & Baxter 2005

Smart, C 2000

2

What does Hewitt & Baxter 2005 theorise about in marriage and divorce?

The social correlates that determine the probability of marriage breakdown.

3

According to Hewitt & Baxter 2005 what are the social correlates of marriage breakdowns?

  • 1. Temporal à socio-historical context, social trends
  • 2. life course à timing of specific life events that precede MB. Two groups:
    • A. family background
    • B. the measuring of relationship and fertility histories
  • 3. Attitudinal à attitudes towards gender roles and religious beliefs.
  • 4. economic factors à Husband’s lack of socio-economic resources, or wife’s access to resources that create destabilizing forces for marriage.

4

Who is the other referred theorists in marriage breakdown?

Bracher et al. (1993):

5

What are the temporal social correlates?

  • Major social changes in contemporary times.
    • Legislative changes
    • Increased women work participation.
    • The generational historical context of morals, believes, values, and economic conditions.
  • Marriage breakdown more evident in recent generations.  Why?
    • Change in attitude towards marriage and divorce. à no fault ect..
    • Older generations less likely to divorce, but younger marriages have had shorter duration, thus less risk of separation

6

According to who, what are the life courses and the correlates of marital breakdown in especially in relation to 'Family Background'?

  • A. Family background:
    • Life courses dependant on race and ethnicity.
    • Different divorce patterns according to immigration patterns and place of origin’s use of English language.

7

According to who, what are the life courses and the correlates of marital breakdown in especially in relation to Relationships and fertility background?

  • B. Relationship and fertility background
    • Age of marriage à reduced maturity when married younger
    • Cohabitation prior marriage
    • Premarital childbirth à unrealistic partnering
    • Post-marital childbirth à reduced likelihood of divorce.
    • Presence and ages of children
    • People’s whose parents separated during youth.

8

Briefly explain the attitudinal factors and marital breakdown.

  • Religious attitudes à gender roles
  • Religious affiliation = strong negative association with marriage breakdown
  • More religious = more traditional = stronger commitment to marriage.

9

Explain the economic factors that correlates with marital breakdown.

  • Increased marriage breakdown in Wester = overall improvement in women’s socioeconomic position of women.
  • Women economic independence = confidence and removal of financial barriers of marriage breakdown
  • The economic independence hypothesis

10

According to Hewitt & Baxter what is the pattern of marriage breakdown over time?

  • Probably of MB increases with marriage duration for both Males and Females (MF)
    • The cumulative effect of marriage breakdown adds up over time

11

According to Hewitt & Baxter what is statistically important about the 25th year of marriage?

  • Marriage Survival (MS) drops in the first 25 years à most MB happens in the 25th year.
    • MS remains consistent after 35-40years of Marriage, not dropping below 67%

12

According to Hewitt & Baxter what is the pattern of marriage breakdown between English and non-English speaking backgrounds?

  • Women born overseas English-speaking country have 42% higher for MB than women boring in AUS. Where has women from NESB were least likely for MB
    • Explanation (Speculation) -  different cultural expectation from NESB may put a strain, but ESB has fewer barriers for workforce participation.
    • Economic independence argument Women from ESB have a better position to economically cope to leave an unsatisfactory relationship.

13

According to Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western what is significant about cohabitation?

  • Cohabitation Before Marriage (CBM) = higher odds of MB for MF..
    • However, may not be significant as CBM is normalised as society progresses

14

According to Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western what is significant about having children before marriage?

  • Child before marriage (PMC(Pre married child)) = higher odds of MB of MF.
    • Interesting sidenote  PMC/MEN = 63%+ of MB | PMC/WOMEN = 2.5 x ~63% of MB

15

Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western, M 2005 finding on delayed marriages?

  • Delayed marriage in age = 6 to 9% reduced of MB PER YEAR.
    • Young marriage age factors may diminish as the social trend towards older marriage age.

16

Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western, M 2005 on children and marriage

  • Post Married children REDUCES % of MB by 85%

17

Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western, M 2005 on religion importance

  • Higher Religiosity = SIGNIFICANT negative association with MB.
    • People who expressed no religion importance = +33% odds of MB compared to above.

18

Hewitt, B, Baxter, J & Western, M 2005 on marriage breakdown and education

  • MENà Higher education DECREASED likelihood of MB compared to diplomas | in trades = +30% of MB.
  • Women with HSC or LESS education are SIGNIFICANTLY less likely to MB compared to women in higher education qualifications.

19