Week 101 Diarrhoea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 101 Diarrhoea Deck (21):
1

what are two red flags of diarrhoea

dysentery and weight loss

2

what is dysentery

blood in the diarrhoea

3

what are the three causes of diarrhoea

osmotic secretory inflammation

4

what causes osmotic diarrhoea

excess hypertonic substances in the lumen osmosis water into the lumen

5

give two signs that the diarrhoea is osmotic

the volume increases a moderate amount and the diarrhoea stops when fasting

6

what parasites may cause osmotic diarrhoea

giardiasis which you get from travelling risk areas include Russia sub-saharan Africa Asia and Turkey

7

what is secretory diarrhoea

secretion of electrolytes and fluid into the lumen and decreased absorption

8

give two ways that the diarrhoea may indicate that this is secretory diarrhoea

there is a very large increase in volume and it is not stopped by fasting

9

give two causes of secretory diarrhoea

artificial sweeteners hormone producing tumours enterotoxins from infections such as cholera c difficile and E coli travellers diarrhoea

10

what causes travellers diarrhoea

enterotoxigenic E coli

11

what is inflammatory diarrhoea

damage to intestinal mucosal cells this causes defective absorption of fluid and electrolytes

12

give two causes of inflammation diarrhoea

shigella infection autoimmune diseases such as ulcerative colitis and IBS coeliac

13

what examinations should be conducted for someone with diarrhoea

bloods rectal examination stool sample colonoscopy sigmoidoscopy

14

what treatment should be given for diarrhoea

rehydration this should be oral rehydration way possible if the patient is in shock then IV rehydration can be used. codeine phosphate and loperamide also known as Imodium I used to reduce the frequency of diarrhoea. antibiotics should be given if it is suspected that this is due to bacterial course most bacteria however are self limiting should be treated with Metronidazole

15

what are the complications of diarrhoea

severe malnutrition mucosal damage GI haemorrhage or perforation and sepsis

16

what is the leading cause of gastroenteritis

rotavirus this usually affects all children 6 to 24 months old it occurs in the winter and it's transmitted via families

17

which microbial cause of diarrhoea is common in cattle faeces

entertohemorrhagic e-coli 0157 H7 it is associated with haemolytic uraemic syndrome

18

which microbial cause of diarrhoea is associated with birds and animals

Campylobacter

19

which microbial cause of diarrhoea causes severe dysentery

shigellosis

20

what fluid is better than saline for adults with severe dehydration

hartmann's fluid

21

what are the red flags for dehydration suggesting shock

a skin pinch of greater than 1 second sunken eyes low blood pressure high heart rate altered responsiveness tachypnoea