Week 14 - biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 14 - biotechnology Deck (8)
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1

Vector

- nucleic acid molecules that deliver a gene into a cell

USEFUL PROPERTIES
- small enough to manipulate in a lab
- survive inside cells
- contain recognisable genetic marker
- ensure genetic expression of gene

- inc. VIRAL GENOME & PLASMIDS

2

Enzymes in DNA sequencing

- Restriction enzyme: cleaves DNA
- DNA ligase: seals DNA into an opening created by the restriction enzyme

3

Restriction enzmes

- cleave (cut) DNA at specific sites
- enzymes are used by bacteria against viruses, the enzymes restrict bacterial viruses from being able to invade some bacteria

4

Plasmids

- small circular chromosomes
- contain genes not essential for survival
- have their own origin of replication → can replicate independently of the main chromosome

5

linking gene and vector

- DNA LIGASE joins the two fragments forming a stable DNA molecule
- catalyses formation of a PHOSPHODIESTER BOND betw. adjacent phosphate & hydroxyl groups of DNA nucleotides
- same enzyme joins Okazaki fragments on lagging strand in replication

6

Applications of polymerase chain reaction

- allows the investigation of minute samples of DNA
- forensics: drop of blood, cells at base of hair
- detection of genetic defects in embryos by analysing single cell
- analysis of mitochondrial DNA from early human species

7

agricultural application

- adoption of GM crops has being resisted in some areas bc of:
→ crop safety for human consumption
→ movement of genes into wild relatives

8

Herbicide resistance

GLYPHOSATE (ROUND UP) kills all plants
- gene from salmonella conveys resistance to glyphosate
- farmers kill weeds w/o killing crops
- reduces tilling and soil erosion