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Advanced Pharm Exam 1 Nurp 422 > Week 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (31)
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1

What is pharmacodynamics?

What the drug does to the body.

2

What has affinity and efficacy for a receptor?

An agonist- it binds to and activates a receptor

3

Describe a full agonist:

Produces a full response while occupying a relatively low proportion of receptors.

4

Describe a partial agonist:

Produces less than a full response while fully occupying their receptors

5

This type of agonist produces an opposite response to that of a typical agonist, yet it binds to the same receptor bonding sites.

Inverse agonist

6

This has affinity but to efficacy for a receptor.

Antagonist “blocker”

7

Describe a competitive antagonist:

Binds to the same receptor site as the agonist but does not activate it.

8

This type of antagonist binds to the agonist not the receptor.

Chemical antagonist

9

Describe an allosteric/noncompetitive antagonist:

Binds to an allosteric site producing a conformational change in the receptor site so that the agonist cannot active the receptor site.

10

The likelihood a drug will bind to a receptor.

Affinity

11

A dose of drug just sufficient to produce a pre-selected effect.

Threshold

12

An exaggerated response of two drugs working together to produce more effect than the drugs separately.

Synergism

13

The phenomenon in which a drug reaches a max effect, so that increasing the drug dosage does not increase the effectiveness.

Ceiling effect

14

A lower LD50 is indicative of:

Increased toxicity

15

The ratio between when a drug is safe and effective bs when it is toxic:

Therapeutic index

16

When the T.I. is large the dose is:

Safe I.e. penicillin

17

When the T.I. is small the dose is:

Needs to be carefully monitored ( warfarin)

18

Increasing the dose of a drug with a small/ narrow TI:

Increases the probability of toxicity

19

When receptors become more sensitive and more receptors are made:

Upregulations
Ex: exercise, pregnancy

20

Receptors become less sensitive to drug/ hormone, receptors break down over time, lose ability to response to drug/hormone:

Downregulation
Ex: long term opioid abuse , type 2 diabetes

21

When 2 drugs are given that act on the same receptor but do not produce an exaggerated effect.

Additive effect
Ex: 2 drugs given to control HTN

22

Most common type of receptor:

g-protein coupled receptors

23

Second messengers are required for:

Hydrophilic ligand

24

What can effect pharmacodynamics:

Individual characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity

25

Any drug or chemical that has an opposite effect but through a different physiologic pathway?

Physiological antagonist

26

Ligand gated ion channel receptors bind to:

Ion channels

27

Cytokine receptors bind to:

Peptide ligands

28

G-protein linked receptors require:

Second messengers

29

Selective to a particular receptor but would act on the receptor if it is on various organs:

Selectivity

30

Only one effect in biological system:

Specificity
Ex: insulin

31

Dose-response curve accounts for:

1. Drug onset
2. Time to peak
3. Duration of action
4. Min effective concentration