WEEK 2: AGED CARE NURSING- MAKING A DIFFERENCE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WEEK 2: AGED CARE NURSING- MAKING A DIFFERENCE Deck (24)
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1

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: HOUSING

- Affordable housing in safe areas that are close to services and the rest of the community
- Affordable home maintenance services
Interior spaces/ level surfaces→ allow free movement
- Public/ commercial renting→ clean housing, well maintained and safe

2

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: CIVIC PARTNERSHIP AND EMPLOYMENT

- Flexible options for older volunteers; training, recognition, guidance and compensation for personal costs
- Adaptable workplaces for disabled people's needs
Self employment options for older people→ promoted and supported
- Training in post-retirement options is provided
- Places in community, organisation and govt boards/ committees are allocated for older people

3

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: OUTDOOR SPACES AND BUILDINGS

- Green spaces and outdoor seating, outdoor street lighting (for safety)
- Non slip footpaths and driveways→ wide enough for wheelchairs, have dropped curbs to ground level
- Footpaths→ well maintained, no obstructions, reserved for pedestrians
- Pedestrian crossings→ sufficient and safe for people with disabilities
- Well signed buildings (inside and out) with seating, toilets, ramps and railings)
- Large number of public toilets and accessible inside and out

4

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION

- Venues for events→ conveniently located and accessible→ events held at convenient times for old people
- Wide variety of attractions; for diverse population and are affordable
- Gatherings held in community places (reservation centres, libraries, schools, parks, community centres)
- Consistent outreach to include people at risk of social isolation

5

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: COMMUNICATION AND FAMILIES

- Regular info and broadcasts of interest
- Printed info→ official forms, TV captions, large lettering
- Electronic equipment (phones, radio, TV, bank machines) have large lettering and big buttons
- Wide public access to computers/ internet at minimal cost in public places (e.g. libraries)

6

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: TRANSPORTATION

- Public transport→ priority older people seating, frequent, affordable, consistent
- Specialised transportation available for disabled people
- Drivers stop beside curb and wait for passengers to be seated before driving off
- Transport stops→ well lit, adequate seating and shelter
- Traffic signs and signals are well placed and visible
- Taxis→ available and affordable
- Driver education and refresher courses are promoted to all drivers
- Parking and drop off areas are sufficient in number and conveniently located

7

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: RESPECT AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

- Consultation with older people for planning and operating in public and commercial services
- Older people; depicted in the media without stereotyping
- Older people specifically included in community activities for families
- Schools→ provide opportunities to learn about ageing; involve older people in school activities

8

AGE- FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS: COMMUNITY AND HEALTH SERVICES

- Health services→ conveniently located and accessible
- Residential care facilities→ located close to services and communities
- Info about health and social services for older people is clear and accessible
- Out of pocket expenses for health care providers and products→ considered for their impact
- Potential for limited health literacy is recognised and addressed in health communication (written/verbal)

9

AGEING POP DEMOGRAPHICS

- Ageing pop→ due to decreased fertility rates + increased life expectancy
- Males→ 79.4 years
- Females→ 83.9 years
- Ageing workforce/ workforce participation
- Major cause of death for older Australians→ Cancer, Stroke, Heart Disease
- Dementia→ Main contributor to disease burden in people aged 85+

10

AGED CARE IN AUSTRALIA- AGED CARE REFORM AGENDA 2012

- Aim to assist people to remain in their own home longer
- From Feb 2017→ all home care packages provided to individuals rather than to approved providers

Services include:
- Personal care→ help with showering, dressing, mobility, meal prep and eating
- Support services→ help with washing, ironing, house cleaning, gardening, home modifications (e.g. rails in shower) and transport
- Clinical care→ Nursing, physiotherapy and podiatry (foot care)

11

ENABLING HEALTHY AGEING

- WHO→ Active ageing; Process of optimising opportunities for health participation and security to enhance quality of life as people age
- WHO→ In socially inclusive environments; older people are able to make valuable contributions in their communities and families if their needs are met with dignity, differences respected and involvement recognised
- Healthy ageing is a state (health status) and a process (engaging in healthy behaviours)

12

DEPENDENCY APPROACH

- Does to a person/ takes over or removes roles
- Supports declining capacity of a person
- Focuses on physical and mental decline
- Can isolate from community and reduces self confidence
- Results in illness/ dependency cycles

13

WELLNESS APPROACHES

- Balances between doing with vs. doing for
- Identifies what a client can and wants to do, rather than only what they have difficulty with
- Supports and values roles→ increases self confidence and builds capacity and self management
- Focuses on re-enabling and maintaining function, minimising impact of functional loss
- Looks at appropriateness of service→ will client have better outcomes with family, community resources

14

WHAT IS OLD AGE?

- When people start to retire or receive a pension. Older; 65+ (based on qualifying age for Age Pension)
- However→ person doesn’t necessarily become frail age 65 (or any other nominated age)
- Young old= 65-74 years
- Middle old= 75-84 years
- ‘Old old’ or ‘frail old’ = 85+
Indigenous Australians= 50+ are considered ‘Older Australians’ → Life expectancy gap

15

SUPPORTING PEOPLE IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS IS CRUCIAL:

- Self management
- Health literacy
- Medication safety and management
- Healthy eating
- Physical activity
- Falls prevention
- Alcohol and tobacco use
- Participation
- Ageism
- Environmental factors

16

RISK FACTORS IN AGEING

- Obesity/weight loss
- Malnutrition
- History of smoking
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Hypertension
- Hyperlipidaemia
- Mental health issues
- Chronic illness
- Diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance)

17

PATIENT RISK DURING CARE

- Decreased mobility/increased falls
- Decreased total fluid/increased dehydration
- Decreased GIT absorption vitamins and minerals/increased malnutrition
- Decreased gag reflex/increased aspiration and pneumonia
- Increased cognitive disturbances/increased delirium

18

KEY POINTS IN RELATION TO SIGNS OF NORMAL AGEING

- Physical changes related to ‘normal’ ageing are not a disease
- Ageing takes place across all body systems (loss, accumulation and change)

19

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: CARDIOVASCULAR

- Heart pumps less effectively
- Left ventricle enlarges
- Valves stiffen and thicken
- Fatty deposits and fibrous tissue are deposited

20

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: DIGESTIVE

- Delayed swallowing and time taken to swallow
- Decreased gastric pH leads to slower absorption

21

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: ENDOCRINE

- Increase in insulin resistance and lower thyroid function leads to increased risk of type II diabetes

22

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: IMMUNE

- T cells become less responsive
- B Cells produce fewer antibodies, leading to diminished immune response and lowered resistance to infection

23

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: INTEGUMENTARY

- Skin texture changes as fat layer lessens, leading to skin wrinkling, thinning and becoming drier and less elastic
- Clustering of melanocytes leads to pigmentation, leading to loss of hair colour
- Increased calcium deposits leads to nails thickening and becoming ridged
- Fewer sweat glands equates to less perspiration

24

CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES WITH AGEING: MUSCULOSKELETAL

- Bones become less dense and depleted of calcium and minerals
- Thinning and curvature of spine leads to loss of height