Week 2- Economic fundamentals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2- Economic fundamentals Deck (23):

John Rawls - A Theory of Justice (1971)

political philosophy:
Put all people from all generations behind a veil of Ignorance.... would decide that all natural and human-made resources are shared exactly equally


Production Possibility Frontiers (description and curve)

A great way of describing production vs environment tradeoffs to be sustainable:
-A certain amount of market goods consumption determines the environmental quality.
-Current generation may be able to consume a certain amount of goods for a certain level of environmental quality, though future generations will need to lower consumption significantly to retain the same level of environmental quality


Perfectly competitive markets

-sellers sell identical products
-buyers and sellers are price takers
-all firms have relatively small market share
-Buyer have complete information
free and easy entry and exit


Law of demand

higher price of a good, lower the quantity demanded (diminishing willingness to pay)


diminishing marginal utiliity

how much happiness you get from consuming a good or service (e.g if you get a scoop of ice cream that you like at a high price, but would like more after, you are less willing to pay at the same price)


If all other market influences stays the same, but the price moves, the demand curve....

stays the same, though consumers shift along the demand curve for greater quantity.


Shift in demand curve caused by:

-substitutes (e.g relative price of butter to margarine)
-complements (e.g if shoes decreases in demand, so does sock market
-Income (normal and inferior goods)
-Normal: more demand for a good with income rise
-Inferior: less consumption of good as income rise (e.g 2min noodles). Curve shift the opposite way
- Population (e.g housing demand)



willingness to produce or sell


Factors affecting quantity supplied

-price of good being produce
-input prices
-market expectations
number of sellers


If only price changes, but all other factors remain constant, the supply curve...

stays the same, though quantity supplied of the good changes.


Factors that shift supply curve

- Input prices (e.g fuel extraction more expensive)
- expectations (war in the Middle East)
- number of suppliers (more is being produced)


Elastic demand

- Substitutes (can easily switch)
- Luxuries


Inelastic demand

- Necessities


Short term demand elasticity



Long term demand elasticity



Draw: perfectly inelastic, inelastic, unit elastic, elastic, perfectly elastic DEMAND

-perfectly inelastic: e.g water
- inelastic: e.g fuel
- unit elastic: 22% inc. in price leads to a 22% decrease in quantity demanded
- Elastic: e.g Luxury


Draw: perfectly inelastic, inelastic, unit elastic, elastic, perfectly elastic SUPPLY

-Perfectly inelastic: e.g water allocated to farmers
- Inelastic: cost of production relatively high
- unit elastic: perfectly 45º curve


Draw: profit maximisation of 200% inc. of price in inelastic supply curve



Draw: Total revenue of wheat growers before and after technology adoption (inelastic)

supply curve moves down to right. Farmers are able to produce more at lower production cost. increased production, however people are not inclined to buy more wheat (necessary good), so in order to sell surplus of wheat, price must be lowered. TR is actually less with technology adoption.


Draw: TR of timber growers after adoption of improved genotypes (elastic)

supply cost moves down. lower consumer price. more quantity demanded due to elastic supply curve. People will be inclined to use timber over alternative building materials (e.g brick, steel).


Draw: Australian banana market when a cyclone damages plantations in north Queensland

- supply curve shifts up (new eq)


Draw: qld tourism market when tourists change their travel plans due to severe coral bleaching in the great barrier reef

- demand shifts down (new eq)


Draw: market for undeveloped farmland when gov pays some of land clearing costs (tax deduction)

- Supply shift down, consumers are reacting to lower price, and buying a greater quantity of farm land (no change in demand curve, just movement along demand curve)